Journal of American History

Round Table

Self and Subject

Virginia Dowd with her three oldest children, right to left, Jacquelyn, Jeanne, and John, c. 1954.
Courtesy Jacquelyn Dowd Hall.

Do our own pasts and the ways we imagine them shape the histories we write, or are our lives and our constructions of them mostly irrelevant? Is self-revelation a useful way to acknowledge our standpoints, interests, and assumptions or more often a route to self-indulgence? In the round table “Self and Subject,” Richard White, Karen Halttunen, Philip J. Deloria, Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, John Demos, Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, and Michael O’Brien explore the interplay of the stories we tell about our own lives and the stories we write about history.

  • Here Is the Problem: An Introduction,
    by Richard White (pp. 17–9) Read online >
  • Self, Subject, and the ‘Barefoot Historian,
    by Karen Halttunen (pp. 20–4) Read online >
  • Thinking about Self in a Family Way,
    by Philip J. Deloria (pp. 25–9) Read online >
  • Last Words,
    by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall (pp. 30–36) Read online >
  • Using Self, Using History . . .,
    by John Demos (pp. 37–42) Read online >
  • A Pail of Cream,
    by Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (pp. 43–7) Read online >
  • Of Cats, Historians, and Gardeners,
    by Michael O’Brien (pp. 48–53) Read online >

Articles

Enforcing the Borders: Chinese Exclusion along the U.S. Borders with Canada and Mexico, 1882–1924

Racialized images of John Chinaman as  an illegal immigrant built on existing stereotypes of Chinese as racially inferior, wily tricksters  who could easily defeat the Chinese exclusion laws and endanger the nation. Such portrayals were  especially popular in border cities where illegal immigration was relatively common.
Reprinted from the Buffalo Evening News, Feb. 1, 1904.

Erika Lee examines the little-known origins of border enforcement policies along the U.S.-Canadian and U.S.-Mexican borders, tracing them to efforts to exclude Chinese migrants. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act sharply restricted Chinese immigration, turning Canada and Mexico into convenient back doors for illegal immigrants. Framing immigration policy and debates over illegal immigration in a transnational context, Lee shows how Chinese exclusion laid the foundations for racialized understandings of illegal immigration and for twentieth-century nation building. (pp. 54–86) Read online >

How the Working Class Saved Capitalism: The New Labor History and The Devil and Miss Jones

An essay by the late Michael Rogin offers new ways of thinking about both the interaction of consumerism and labor militancy in the 1930s and the relationship of film and history. The Devil and Miss Jones (1941), a screwball comedy about a department store strike, is one of the very few New Deal era movies that directly addresses the period’s industrial battles. Rogin finds that the film’s intentions, conscious and unconscious, point to the brief historical conjunction of mass popular culture, New Deal consumerism, and labor organizing. Yet even as the film links popular culture with labor’s triumph, Rogin argues, it foreshadows the demise of labor’s power. (pp. 87–114) Read online >

Afterword

By Kathleen Moran (pp. 115–118) Read online >

Is the Supreme Court Sometimes Irrelevant? Race and the Southern Criminal Justice System in the 1940s

In 1949 Thurgood Marshall  (left foreground) defended two Groveland, Florida, men (to Marshall’s left) accused of raping a white woman.  The Supreme Court ultimately reversed their convictions, on the ground that blacks were systematically  excluded from the jury that convicted them. Marshall’s presence in courts across the nation educated  local people, black and white, about the legal rights of African Americans.
Courtesy the Ocala Star-Banner.

Do judicial decisions produce social change? Drawing on National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (naacp) records, Michael J. Klarman concludes that the Supreme Court’s first modern criminal-procedure rulings, intended to check the worst abuses of Jim Crow justice, had virtually no impact. Southern blacks continued to be excluded from juries, to be beaten into confessing, and to be incompetently represented. In contrast, the Court’s rulings against racially restrictive covenants and all-white election primaries led to visible change. Under certain conditions, then, Court rulings did indeed matter. And the process of litigation itself helped mobilize social protest and promote change. (pp. 119–53) Read online >

Whiteness Studies: The New History of Race in America

A burgeoning scholarship on whiteness is reshaping the study of race in history and related disciplines. Peter Kolchin offers a preliminary evaluation, focusing on the historical literature and paying particular attention to the work of two leading scholars in the field, David R. Roediger and Matthew Frye Jacobson. Kolchin praises whiteness studies for reinforcing our understanding of race as “constructed” but questions their imprecise definitions of “whiteness,” overreliance on whiteness to explain the American past, and parochialism in seeing whiteness as an exclusively American phenomenon. (pp. 154–73) Read online >

Exhibition Reviews

This two-and-a-half-story Georgian-style house was brought to the museum from Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1963. It is now the centerpiece of a new exhibition, Within These Walls . . . , which chronicles the lives of five families who lived in the house over the past two hundred years.
Courtesy Smithsonian Institute.
  • “1699: When Virginia Was the Wild West!,” by Kirk Davis Swinehart (pp. 174–8) Read online >
  • “Within These Walls . . . ,” by Brian Horrigan (pp. 179–81) Read online >
  • “President Calvin Coolidge State Historic Site,” by Phillip Payne (pp. 182–4) Read online >
  • “The Once and Future Web: Worlds Woven by the Telegraph and Internet,” by Maggie Dennis (pp. 185–7) Read online >

Book Reviews

June 2002, Vol. 89 No. 1

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

A
  • Abel, Hearts of Wisdom: American Women Caring for Kin, 1850–1940, by Ellen S. More
  • Adams, General William S. Harney: Prince of Dragoons, by Joseph G. Dawson III
  • Archer, Fissures in the Rock: New England in the Seventeenth Century, by Ann M. Little
  • Atkins, We Grew Up Together: Brothers and Sisters in Nineteenth-Century America, by Linda W. Rosenzweig
B
  • Barbour, Fort Union and the Upper Missouri Fur Trade, by Robert Wooster
  • Beary, Black Bishop: Edward T. Demby and the Struggle for Racial Equality in the Episcopal Church, by Alfred Moss
  • Beeman and Pritchard, A Green and Permanent Land: Ecology and Agriculture in the Twentieth Century, by Pamela Riney-Kehrberg
  • Bensel, The Political Economy of American Industrialization, 1877–1900, by James Livingston
  • Berstein, Only One Place of Redress: African Americans, Labor Regulations, and the Courts from Reconstruction to the New Deal, by Michael S. Mayer
  • Blackford, Fragile Paradise: The Impact of Tourism on Maui, 1959–2000, by David Farber
  • Brilliant, Private Charity and Public Inquiry: A History of the Filer and Peterson Commissions, by Judith Sealander
C
  • Carnes, ed., Novel History: Historians and Novelists Confront America’s Past (and Each Other), by Dorothy C. Broaddus
  • Carney, Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas, by S. Max Edelson
  • Chaplin, Subject Matter: Technology, the Body, and Science on the Anglo-American Frontier, 1500–1676, by Virginia DeJohn Anderson
  • Claviez and Moss, eds., Mirror Writing: (Re-) Constructions of Native American Identity, by Charles L. P. Silet
  • Click, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmen’s Colony, 1862–1867, by Janette Thomas Greenwood
  • Clinton, ed., Southern Families at War: Loyalty and Conflict in the Civil War South, by Marie Jenkins Schwartz
  • Cochran, Democracy Heading South: National Politics in the Shadow of Dixie, by Bruce J. Schulman
  • Cohen and Eisen, The Jew Within: Self, Family, and Community in America, by Marc Dollinger
  • Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, by Brooks D. Simpson
  • Cortner, Civil Rights and Public Accommodations: The Heart of Atlanta Motel and McClung Cases, by Raymond Wolters
  • Cottrell, Roger Nash Baldwin and the American Civil Liberties Union, by Michal R. Belknap
  • Courtwright, Forces of Habit: Drugs and the Making of the Modern World, by Jim Baumohl
  • Craddock, City of Plagues: Disease, Poverty, and Deviance in San Francisco, by Richard A. Meckel
  • Craig, Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920–1940, by Brett Gary
  • Crane, Fashion and Its Social Agendas: Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing, by Mary W. Blanchard
  • Cumbler, Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England, 1790–1930, by Brian Donahue
  • Curtin, Black Prisoners and Their World, Alabama, 1865–1900, by Karin A. Shapiro
D
  • Davis, Race against Time: Culture and Separation in Natchez since 1930, by J. William Harris
  • Davis, The Union That Shaped the Confederacy: Robert Toombs & Alexander H. Stephens, by Christopher J. Olsen
  • Derrick, Tunneling to the Future: The Story of the Great Subway Expansion That Saved New York, by Clifton Hood
  • Dew, Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War, by Martin Crawford
  • Doenecke, Storm on the Horizon: The Challenge to American Intervention, 1939–1941, by Manfred Jonas
  • Druks, The Uncertain Friendship: The U.S. and Israel from Roosevelt to Kennedy, by John Snetsinger
  • Duggan, Sapphic Slashers: Sex, Violence, and American Modernity, by John Rockwell Snowden
E
  • Eltis, ed., The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on cd-rom, by Daniel C. Littlefield
  • Ericson, The Debate over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America, by Dan R. Frost
  • Everett, Returning the Gaze: A Genealogy of Black Film Criticism, 1909–1949, by Thomas Cripps
F
  • Fernlund, William Henry Holmes and the Rediscovery of the American West, by Karl Jacoby
  • Fickle, Mississippi Forests and Forestry, by Mikko Saikku
  • Fishman, ed., The American Planning Tradition: Culture and Policy, by Gwendolyn Wright
  • Fixico, The Urban Indian Experience in America, by Kenneth R. Philp
  • Flores, From Bomba to Hip-Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity, by Zaragosa Vargas
  • Foucrier, Le rêve californien: Migrants français sur la côte Pacifique, XVIIIe–XXe siècles (Californian dreams: French migrants on the Pacific Coast [18th–20th centuries]), by Rob Kroes
  • Francaviglia and Richmond, eds., Dueling Eagles: Reinterpreting the U.S.-Mexican War, 1846–1848, by James M. McCaffrey
  • Freeberg, The Education of Laura Bridgman: First Deaf and Blind Person to Learn Language, by Kim E. Nielsen
  • Frey, Geschichte des Vietnamkriegs: Die Tragödie in Asien und das Ende des amerikanischen Traums (History of the Vietnam War: The tragedy in Asia and the end of the American dream), by Dennis E. Showalter
G
  • Gerstle, American Crucible: Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century, by Eric Arnesen
  • Giglio, Musial: From Stash to Stan the Man, by Richard C. Crepeau
  • Gitter, The Imprisoned Guest: Samuel Howe and Laura Bridgman, the Original Deaf-Blind Girl, by Kim E. Nielsen
  • Glover, All Our Relations: Blood Ties and Emotional Bonds among the Early South Carolina Gentry, by Anya Jabour
  • Goodman and Walsh, The Story of Taxol: Nature and Politics in the Pursuit of an Anti-Cancer Drug, by Rima D. Apple
  • Grundy, Learning to Win: Sports, Education, and Social Change in Twentieth-Century North Carolina, by Benjamin G. Rader
  • Gulliford, Sacred Objects and Sacred Places: Preserving Tribal Traditions, by Christopher Vecsey
  • Gundle, Between Hollywood and Moscow: The Italian Communists and the Challenge of Mass Culture, 1943–1991, by Mario Del Pero
H
  • Hall, Land & Allegiance in Revolutionary Georgia, by Carole Watterson Troxler
  • Hall, ed., Databases for the Study of Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1699–1860: Information from Original Manuscript Sources, by Daniel C. Littlefield
  • Haller, The People’s Doctors: Samuel Thomson and the American Botanical Movement, 1790–1860, by Anita Guerrini
  • Hamilton-Paterson, America’s Boy: A Century of Colonialism in the Philippines, by Joseph A. Fry
  • Hampf, Freies Radio in den usa: Die Pacifica-Foundation, 1946–1965 (Free radio in the usa: The Pacifica Foundation, 1946–1965), by Brigitte L. Nacos
  • Harper, Give Me My Father’s Body: The Life of Minik the New York Eskimo, by Curtis M. Hinsley Jr.
  • Hepler, Women in Labor: Mothers, Medicine, and Occupational Health in the United States, 1890–1980, by Lynne Curry
  • Herndon, Unwelcome Americans: Living on the Margin in Early New England, by John K. Alexander
  • Hettle, The Peculiar Democracy: Southern Democrats in Peace and Civil War, by Susan-Mary Grant
  • Hirobe, Japanese Pride, American Prejudice: Modifying the Exclusion Clause of the 1924 Immigration Act, by John N. Tsuchida
  • Hirsh, Power Loss: The Origins of Deregulation and Restructuring in the American Utility System, by Robert W. Righter
  • Hollandsworth, An Absolute Massacre: The New Orleans Race Riot of July 30, 1866, by Jonathan M. Bryant
J
  • Jaffa, A New Birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War, by David F. Ericson
  • Joselit, A Perfect Fit: Clothes, Character, and the Promise of America, by Mary W. Blanchard
  • Justesen, George Henry White: An Even Chance in the Race of Life, by Robert Casannelo
K
  • Katz, The Price of Citizenship: Redefining the American Welfare State, by Joanne Goodwin
  • Keita, Race and the Writing of History: Riddling the Sphinx, by David Turley
  • Kern, Mrs. Stanton’s Bible, by Nancy Isenberg
  • Klotman and Cutler, eds., Struggles for Representation: African American Documentary Film and Video, by L. S. Kim
L
  • Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 1954–1975, by Robert R. Tomes
  • Leab, I Was a Communist for the fbi: The Unhappy Life and Times of Matt Cvetic, by Robert Griffith
  • Lee, Comrades and Partners: The Shared Lives of Grace Hutchins and Anna Rochester, by Kate Weigand
  • Lerner, The Breast Cancer Wars: Hope, Fear, and the Pursuit of a Cure in Twentieth-Century America, by Rima D. Apple
  • Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919–1963, by V. P. Franklin
  • Linebaugh and Rediker, The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic, by Jon Sensbach
  • Linn, The Philippine War, 1899–1902, by Joseph A. Fry
  • Longmore and Umansky, eds., The New Disability History: American Perspectives, by James W. Trent
M
  • Mathé, ed., L’Antiaméricanisme: Anti-Americanism at Home and Abroad, by Peter Gibian
  • McBride, Technological Change and the United States Navy, 1865–1945, by Gary E. Weir
  • McCann, Gumshoe America: Hard-Boiled Crime Fiction and the Rise and Fall of New Deal Liberalism, by Lawrence J. Oliver
  • McCurdy, The Anti-Rent Era in New York Law and Politics, 1839–1865, by Martin Bruegel
  • McFeely, Zuni and the American Imagination, by Larry J. Zimmerman
  • Meagher, Inventing Irish America: Generation, Class, and Ethnic Identity in a New England City, 1880–1928, by James Connolly
  • Medhurst and Brands, eds., Critical Reflections on the Cold War: Linking Rhetoric and History, by Melvin Small
  • Mele, Selling the Lower East Side: Culture, Real Estate, and Resistance in New York City, by Ross Miller
  • Melnick, Black-Jewish Relations on Trial: Leo Frank and Jim Conley in the New South, by Clive Webb
  • Mendelberg, The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality, by Matthew J. Streb
  • Meyer, Myths in Stone: Religious Dimensions of Washington, D.C, by Isabelle Gournay
  • Miller, Crime, Sexual Violence, and Clemency: Florida’s Pardon Board and Penal System in the Progressive Era, by Wilbur R. Miller
  • Miller, Making Love Modern: The Intimate Public Worlds of New York’s Literary Women, by Lisa Cohen
  • Millikan, A Union against Unions: The Minneapolis Citizens Alliance and Its Fight against Organized Labor, 1903–1947, by Elizabeth Fones-Wolf
  • Mizruchi, ed., Religion and Cultural Studies, by Leigh E. Schmidt
  • Monkkonen, Murder in New York City, by David B. Wolcott
  • Monnett, Tell Them We Are Going Home: The Odyssey of the Northern Cheyennes, by Donald J. Berthrong
  • Moran, Interracial Intimacy: The Regulation of Race & Romance, by Lisa Lindquist Dorr
  • Morgan, Morgan, and Morgan, eds., The Visual Culture of American Religions, by Paul Eli Ivey
  • Moriyama, Nichibei Kaisen no Seiji Katei (The political process of Japan’s decision to wage a war against the United States), by Roger Dingman
  • Moss, Golf and the American Country Club, by John Dizikes
  • Moy, War Machines: Transforming Technologies in the U.S. Military, 1920–1940, by Gary E. Weir
  • Mullin, Culture in the Marketplace: Gender, Art, and Value in the American Southwest, by Mick Gidley
N
  • Nelson, The Legalist Reformation: Law, Politics, and Ideology in New York, 1920–1980, by Randolph E. Bergstrom
  • Nelson, Divided We Stand: American Workers and the Struggle for Black Equality, by Judith Stein
  • Nester, “Haughty Conquerors”: Amherst and the Great Indian Uprising of 1763, by Michael N. McConnell
  • Nicolson, The “Infamas Govener”: Francis Bernard and the Origins of the American Revolution, by David W. Conroy
  • Niethammer, I’ll Go and Do More: Annie Dodge Wauneka, Navajo Leader and Activist, by Helen M. Bannan
P
  • Patterson, Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy, by Raymond Wolters
  • Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919–57, by Edward P. Johanningsmeier
  • Perlstein, Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus, by M. J. Heale
  • Polsgrove, Divided Minds: Intellectuals and the Civil Rights Movement, by Nancy J. Weiss
  • Pyne, Year of the Fires: The Story of the Great Fires of 1910, by Peter Boag
R
  • Rebert, La Gran Línea: Mapping the United States–Mexico Boundary, 1849–1857, by Dennis Reinhartz
  • Richards, Maida Springer: Pan-Africanist and International Labor Leader, by Ruth A. Needleman
  • Rilling, Making Houses, Crafting Capitalism: Builders in Philadelphia, 1790–1850, by Edward K. Spann
  • Rosenthal, Irreconcilable Differences?: The Waning of the American Jewish Love Affair with Israel, by John Snetsinger
  • Rusco, A Fateful Time: The Background and Legislative History of the Indian Reorganization Act, by Raymond Wilson
S
  • San Miguel, Brown, Not White: School Integration and the Chicano Movement in Houston, by Gilbert G. González
  • Sarantakes, Keystone: The American Occupation of Okinawa and U.S.-Japanese Relations, by Russell D. Buhite
  • Schantz, Piety in Providence: Class Dimensions of Religious Experience in Antebellum Rhode Island, by John W. Quist
  • Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917–1950, by William L. O’Neill
  • Schultz, Going South: Jewish Women in the Civil Rights Movement, by Nancy MacLean
  • Sharp, Condensing the Cold War: Reader’s Digest and American Identity, by Susan Schulten
  • Shepard, A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century, by Eric T. Dean Jr.
  • Shipps, Sojourner in the Promised Land: Forty Years among the Mormons, by Timothy Miller
  • Slane, A Not So Foreign Affair: Fascism, Sexuality, and the Cultural Rhetoric of American Democracy, by Laura A. Belmonte
  • Smith, The Search for Social Salvation: Social Christianity and America, 1880–1925, by William R. Glass
  • Smith, Grant, by Hans L. Trefousse
  • Spurlock and Magistro, New and Improved: The Transformation of American Women's Emotional Culture, by David Peterson del Mar
  • Steinberg, Acts of God: The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America, by J. Brooks Flippen
  • Stevens, Bioethics in America: Origins and Cultural Politics, by Raymond DeVries
  • Stinnett, Day of Deceit: The Truth about fdr and Pearl Harbor, by Justus D. Doenecke
  • Strauss, Percival Lowell: The Culture and Science of a Boston Brahmin, by Ronald Story
  • Streeter, Managing the Counterrevolution: The United States and Guatemala, 1954–1961, by Michael L. Krenn
  • Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform, by Dennis A. Deslippe
  • Strozier, Heinz Kohut: The Making of a Psychoanalyst, by Peter Loewenberg
  • Szalay, New Deal Modernism: American Literature and the Invention of the Welfare State, by Lawrence J. Oliver
  • Szasz, Religion in the Modern American West, by Carol K. Coburn
T
  • Tager, Boston Riots: Three Centuries of Social Violence, by Paul A. Gilje
  • Thornbrough, ed. by Ruegamer, Indiana Blacks in the Twentieth Century, by Darrel E. Bigham
  • Tygiel, Past Time: Baseball as History, by George B. Kirsch
  • Tyrrell, Deadly Enemies: Tobacco and Its Opponents in Australia, by James Kirby Martin
W
  • Wacker, Heaven Below: Early Pentecostals and American Culture, by R. Marie Griffith
  • Waddell, The War against the New Deal: World War II and American Democracy, by John W. Jeffries
  • Waldrep and Nieman, eds., Local Matters: Race, Crime, and Justice in the Nineteenth-Century South, by Dickson D. Bruce Jr.
  • Walker, Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century, by Sheldon Ungar
  • Walsh, Making Connections: The Long-Distance Bus Industry in the usa, by William R. Childs
  • Warren, Wealth, Waste, and Alienation: Growth, Decline in the Connellsville Coke Industry, by Duane A. Smith
  • Wayne, Death of an Overseer: Reopening a Murder Investigation from the Plantation South, by Daniel W. Crofts
  • Webb, Fight against Fear: Southern Jews and Black Civil Rights, by Nancy MacLean
  • Weyeneth, Historic Preservation for a Living City: Historic Charleston Foundation, 1947-1997, by David R. Contosta
  • Wilder, A Covenant with Color: Race and Social Power in Brooklyn, by Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua
  • Woodson, A President in the Family: Thomas Jefferson, Sally Hemings, and Thomas Woodson, by Jan Ellen Lewis
  • Worster, A River Running West: The Life of John Wesley Powell, by Karl Jacoby
  • Wright, Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America, by Bernard Mergen
  • Wyatt-Brown, The Shaping of Southern Culture: Honor, Grace, and War, 1760s–1890s, by A. James Fuller
Y
  • Ye, Seeking Modernity in China’s Name: Chinese Students in the United States, 1900–1927, by Eileen Scully
Z
  • Zolov, Refried Elvis: The Rise of the Mexican Counterculture, by T. M. Scruggs

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • The Great Chicago Fire and the Web of Memory, by Philip J. Ethington (pp. 328–29) Read online >
  • Anti-Imperialism in the United States, 1898–1935, by Pennee Bender (pp. 329–30) Read online >
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, by Gregory Wilson (330–31) Read online >
  • RE: Vietnam—Stories since the War, by Michael Frisch (pp.331–32) Read online >
  • Whole Cloth: Discovering Science and Technology through American History, by Nancy Page Fernandez (332–33) Read online >

Letters to the Editor

Announcements

Recent Scholarship

“Recent Scholarship” is available online, Read online >

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On the cover:

Chinese illegal immigration across the northern and southern borders of the United States was part of a much larger transnational, and interracial, system of illicit trade. This illustration depicts an “American” pilot guiding a Chinese male toward the border. Other common guides were Canadian, American Indian, or Mexican. Reprinted from Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, March 1891. See Erika Lee, “Enforcing the Borders: Chinese Exclusion along the U.S. Borders with Canada and Mexico, 1882–1924,” p. 54.

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