Journal of American History

Presidential Address

Black Professionals and Race Consciousness: Origins of the Civil Rights Movement, 1890–1950

Attorney William Henry Hastie, left, with Undersecretary of War Robert 
P. Patterson. Hastie served as civilian aide for Negro affairs to the secretary of war from November 1940 until January 1943. He fought for the integration of black nurses into the armed forces nurse corps and for the desegregation of the entire U.S. military.
Courtesy Library of Congress

From the late nineteenth century on, black professionals organized parallel institutions to further their class interests and to ensure the survival of the black community. Such professional institutions sustained an elite-driven black resistance to white supremacy until the eruption of a mass civil rights movement in the 1950s. In her presidential address to the Organization of American Historians, Darlene Clark Hine examines conflicts over the use of black physicians and nurses in the military during World War II. She identifies that struggle as the pivotal juncture when men and women of the black professional class shifted strategies, turning from a parallelism consistent with segregation to a demand for full inclusion that would doom segregation. (pp. 1279–94) Read online >


Beyond Freedom and Slavery: Autonomy, Virtue, and Resistance in Early American Political Discourse

Benson Lossing’s mid-nineteenth-century rendering of Benjamin Franklin’s seal for the United States, proposed in 1776. The seal shows pharaoh’s army foundering as the freed Israelites look on from safety, suggesting the power of slavery in shaping Americans’ national image. If the design here depicted freedom as the result of divine will, more often early national print culture made freedom a result of Americans’ own agency, their virtuous resistance to tyranny.
Courtesy Library of Congress.

Did the liberal and republican traditions of the United States subvert slavery? No, argues François Furstenberg; in the early republic they could justify slavery. Furstenberg shows that the narrative of the American Revolution presented in early national print culture grounded freedom and virtue in resistance. If those who resisted oppression earned their freedom, it followed that those who remained enslaved must be tacitly consenting to their own subjugation. The liberal-republican principle of consent thus legitimated slavery. Furstenberg suggests that the professional division between intellectual history and the historiography of slavery has led scholars to overemphasize the contributions of American liberal and republican traditions to the history of liberation and to neglect their equally significant contributions to the history of oppression. (pp. 1295–1331) Read online >

Whose “Barbarism”? Whose “Treachery”? Race and Civilization in the Unknown United States-Korea War of 1871

Soon after the U.S. fleet entered Korean waters in May 1871 on a mission to “open” Korea to contact with the West, the pioneer photographer Felice Beato took this picture, probably the first photograph of Korea ever taken.
Courtesy Stanford University Libraries.

Gordon H. Chang examines a long-neglected episode in the American effort to open Asia to the Western system of international trade and diplomacy. In 1871, a U.S. naval expedition sent out to establish diplomatic relations with Korea instead made war. Although the Americans involved took pride in their venture’s high-mindedness and although they did not seek territory or exclusive trading rights, their actions differed little from European colonialism elsewhere in Asia. Chang explores how ideas about international norms, commercial potential, civilization, and race came together to produce the tragic and bloody United States-Korea War of 1871 (pp. 1331–65) Read online >

Round Table

Subaltern History Makers and Alternative Constructions of the Past

The round table “Subaltern History Makers and Alternative Constructions of the Past” presents two articles that address how members of subordinated groups created distinctive popular versions of the past.

An Introduction

by Joanne Meyerowitz. Read online >

Meta Warrick’s 1907 “Negro Tableaux” and (Re)Presenting African American Historical Memory

A portrait of the artist Meta Vaux Warrick (1877–1968) from 1907, the year she created the Jamestown Exposition tableaux. At thirty years old and boasting training in the studios of Paris, she accepted a commission ‘to construct in a true and artistic manner’ tableaux ‘so arranged as to show . . . the progress of the Negro in America from the landing at Jamestown to the present time.’
Image reprinted from Voice of the Negro, March 1907.

How could artists trained in the hierarchical and ethnocentric pre-modernist traditions of the early twentieth century portray African Americans and their history when neither were considered worthy artistic subjects? Meta Warrick, a Paris-trained African American sculptor, struggled with that challenge when she crafted elaborate tableaux of African American history for the 1907 Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition. W. Fitzhugh Brundage shows how Warrick used the era’s seemingly objective modes of representation to contest the dominant ideology of white supremacy, even as her tableaux also embraced the prevailing grand narrative of middle-class respectability, upward mobility, and social progress as the way to ennoble African American history. (pp. 1368–1400) Read online >

For suggestions on how to use this article in the U.S. history classroom, see our “Teaching the JAH” Web project at

The Politics of Transnational History Making: Japanese Immigrants on the Western “Frontier,” 1927–1941

The gravestone of the Japanese woman pioneer Okei in Gold Hill, California. The headstone reads, ‘Okei, nineteen years old, died in 1871’; she has been identified as the first female Japanese immigrant.  Thanks to the lobbying of local Nisei (second-generation) leaders, her grave was designated part of a state historic landmark in 1969.
Reprinted from Zaibei Nihonjinkai, Zaibei Nihonjinshi (History of Japanese in America), 1940.

Bringing together the histories of immigration, popular culture, and historiography, Eiichiro Azuma shows how Japanese immigrants placed their collective past within narratives of the American frontier and Japanese expansionism. Between 1924 and 1941, Issei historians writing for a popular audience borrowed from Japanese and American ideologies to draw a parallel between Euro-American frontiersmen and Japanese immigrant “pioneers.” That historical vision enabled immigrants who were denied citizenship to proclaim themselves archetypal Americans by virtue of their Japanese traits—until World War II made such a dual national identity untenable. (pp. 1400–31) Read online >

Special Essay

Expansion and Exceptionalism in Early American History

Transnational, Atlantic, global–that is what American history is now supposed to be. But how can it reach that goal? Joyce E. Chaplin surveys early American history, which has long been in dialogue with non-Americanist fields, noting how it has expanded to include the histories of nations and peoples beyond the traditional core of white, Anglophone colonists. Yet, despite their new and intriguing patterns of borrowing and lending from other historical fields, early Americanists have stubbornly retained a sense of American exceptionalism. Chaplin’s essay looks at how we might, in our globalizing age, lose some of our scholarly parochialism. (pp. 1431–55) Read online >

Textbooks & Teaching

Courtesy McGraw Hill

Editors’ Introduction: “More than Bells and Whistles? Using Digital Technology to Teach American History," by Gary J. Kornblith and Carol Lasser (pp. 1456–7) Read online >

“Building the Better Textbook: The Promises and Perils of E-Publication,” by Michael J. Guasco (pp. 1458–62) Read online >

“‘Scholars will soon be instructed through the eye’: E-Supplements and the Teaching of U.S. History,” by David Jaffee (pp. 1463–82) Read online >

“Using Online Resources to Re-center the U.S. History Survey: Women’s History as a Case Study,” by Kriste Lindenmeyer (pp. 1483–88) Read online >

“Pursuing E-Opportunities in the History Classroom,” by Mark Tebeau (pp. 1489–94) Read online >

Book Reviews

March 2003, Vol. 89 No. 4

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Adams, Sideshow U.S.A.: Freaks and the American Cultural Imagination, by Robert W. Rydell
  • Alexander, Breaking the Slump: Baseball in the Depression Era, by Robert F. Burk
  • Anbinder, Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City Neighborhood That Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, and Became the World’s Most Notorious Slum, by Howard P. Chudacoff
  • Bae, Labor in Retreat: Class and Community among Men’s Clothing Workers of Chicago, 1871–1929, by Xiaolan Bao
  • Baptist, Creating an Old South: Middle Florida’s Plantation Frontier before the Civil War, by Christopher Waldrep
  • Barbas, Movie Crazy: Fans, Stars, and the Cult of Celebrity, by George Potamianos
  • Barnes, Standing on a Volcano: The Life and Times of David Rowland Francis, by William Thomas Allison
  • Beattie, Obligation and Opportunity: Single Maritime Women in Boston, 1870–1930, by Laurie Mercier
  • Bigott, From Cottage to Bungalow: Houses and the Working Class in Metropolitan Chicago, 1869–1929, by Margaret Garb
  • Bindas, Swing, That Modern Sound, by David G. Borgo
  • Black, ed., Modern American Queer History, by Jane Gerhard
  • Bloom, Joseph Jefferson: Dean of the American Theatre, by Roger A. Hall
  • Bouvier, ed., Whose America? The War of 1898 and the Battles to Define the Nation, by Molly M. Wood
  • Boyer Lewis, Ladies and Gentlemen on Display: Planter Society at the Virginia Springs, 1790–1860, by Catherine Allgor
  • Braunstein and Doyle, eds., Imagine Nation: The American Counterculture of the 1960s and ’70s, by Jon Wiener
  • Bucki, Bridgeport’s Socialist New Deal, 1915–36, by Gerald Zahavi
  • Burton, Extraordinary Circumstances: The Seven Days Battles, by Stephen D. Engle
  • Cashin and Eskew, eds., Paternalism in a Southern City: Race, Religion, and Gender in Augusta, Georgia, by James M. Russell
  • Castronovo, Necro Citizenship: Death, Eroticism, and the Public Sphere in the Nineteenth-Century United States, by Molly McGarry
  • Clark, Railroads in the Civil War: The Impact of Management on Victory and Defeat, by William G. Thomas III
  • Collins, More: The Politics of Economic Growth in Postwar America, by Robert L. Brandfon
  • Daniels, Lester Leaps In: The Life and Times of Lester “Pres” Young, by Kathy Ogren
  • Davidson, America’s Palestine: Popular and Official Perceptions from Balfour to Israeli Statehood, by Ritchie Ovendale
  • Davis, Look Away! A History of the Confederate States of America, by Paul D. Escott
  • Davis, An Honorable Defeat: The Last Days of the Confederate Government, by Brian R. Dirck
  • Davis, Rhett: The Turbulent Life and Times of a Fire-Eater, by Manisha Sinha
  • Dawes, The Language of War: Literature and Culture in the U.S. from the Civil War through World War II, by Lyde Cullen Sizer
  • Druks, The Uncertain Alliance: The U.S. and Israel from Kennedy to the Peace Process, by Antonio Donno
  • Duncan, Rickover: The Struggle for Excellence, by Rodney Carlisle
  • Durden, Electrifying the Piedmont Carolinas: The Duke Power Company, 1904–1997, by William J. Hausman
  • Eick, Dissent in Wichita: The Civil Rights Movement in the Midwest, 1954–72, by Adam Fairclough
  • Ely, Railroads and American Law, by John E. Semonche
  • Eskridge and Noll, eds., More Money, More Ministry: Money and Evangelicals in Recent North American History, by Douglas Carl Abrams
  • Ethridge and Hudson, eds., The Transformation of the Southeastern Indians, 1540–1760, by Nancy Shoemaker
  • Fabre and Feith, eds., Temples for Tomorrow: Looking Back at the Harlem Renaissance, by Cary D. Wintz
  • Farrell-Beck and Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America, by Gayle V. Fischer
  • Finzsch and Wellenreuther, eds., Visions of the Future in Germany and America, by Michael D. Clark
  • Fiorentino, Le tribù devono sparire: La politica di assimilazione degli indiani negli Stati Uniti d’America (The tribes have to disappear: The politics of assimilation of the Indians in the United States of America), by Louise K. Barnett
  • Fischer, Suspect Relations: Sex, Race, and Resistance in Colonial North Carolina, by C. Dallett Hemphill
  • Foletta, Coming to Terms with Democracy: Federalist Intellectuals and the Shaping of an American Culture, by Jonathan A. Glickstein
  • Fredrickson, Racism: A Short History, by Jonathan Zimmerman
  • Gabaccia and Ottanelli, eds., Italian Workers of the World: Labor Migration and the Formation of Multiethnic States, by Vincent DiGirolamo
  • Gallay, The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670–1717, by Claudio Saunt
  • Gambone, Capturing the Revolution: The United States, Central America, and Nicaragua, 1961–1972, by Darlene Rivas
  • Garcia, A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970, by Rodolfo F. Acuña
  • Gibian, Oliver Wendell Holmes and the Culture of Conversation, by James Perrin Warren
  • Gilmore, The Genuine Article: Race, Mass Culture, and American Literary Manhood, by Mark Bauerlein
  • Goebel, A Government by the People: Direct Democracy in America, 1890–1940, by Jeffrey Ostler
  • Goff, Close Harmony: A History of Southern Gospel, by Randall Balmer
  • Goldfield, Still Fighting the Civil War: The American South and Southern History, by Jim Cullen
  • Greenbaum, Men against Myths: The Progressive Response, by LeRoy Ashby
  • Greene, Mr. Skylark: John Bennett and the Charleston Renaissance, by I. A. Newby
  • Gregg, Inside Out, Outside In: Essays in Comparative History, by Ian Tyrrell
  • Griffin, The People with No Name: Ireland’s Ulster Scots, America’s Scots Irish,and the Creation of a British Atlantic World, 1689–1764, by Warren R. Hofstra
  • Hall, Mercy, Mercy Me: African-American Culture and the American Sixties, by George Lipsitz
  • Hamm, Rebel and a Cause: Caryl Chessman and the Politics of the Death Penalty in Postwar California, 1948–1974, by Scott Christianson
  • Harris, Deep Souths: Delta, Piedmont, and Sea Island Society in the Age of Segregation, by Sarah Judson
  • Hayes, South Carolina and the New Deal, by Paul E. Mertz
  • Healy, James G. Blaine and Latin America, by Joyce S. Goldberg
  • Hewitt, Southern Discomfort: Women’s Activism in Tampa, Florida, 1880s–1920s, by Priscilla Murolo
  • Higginbotham, Too Much to Ask: Black Women in the Era of Integration, by Robert A. Pratt
  • Hoffman, Florida’s Frontiers, by John T. McGrath
  • Howard, Publishing the Family, by Glenn Hendler
  • Hurley, Diners, Bowling Alleys, and Trailer Parks: Chasing the American Dream in the Postwar Consumer Culture, by Dominick Cavallo
  • Jackson, Harlemworld: Doing Race and Class in Contemporary Black America, by Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua
  • Janzen, The Rise and Fall of Synanon: A California Utopia, by Robert S. Fogarty
  • Jeffreys-Jones, Cloak and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence, by Katherine A. S. Sibley
  • Jurca, White Diaspora: The Suburb and the Twentieth-Century American Novel, by Allan Hepburn
  • Kars, Breaking Loose Together: The Regulator Rebellion in Pre-Revolutionary North Carolina, by T. H. Breen
  • Kent, From Slogans to Mantras: Social Protest and Religious Conversion in the Late Vietnam War Era, by Peter W. Williams
  • Kline, Building a Better Race: Gender, Sexuality, and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom, by Gregory Michael Dorr
  • Knack, Boundaries Between: The Southern Paiutes, 1775–1995, by Robert L. Bee
  • Knepper, Greenbelt, Maryland: A Living Legacy of the New Deal, by Christopher Silver
  • Knott, Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth, by Stuart Leibiger
  • Knupfer, Reform and Resistance: Gender, Delinquency, and America’s First Juvenile Court, by Michael Willrich
  • Kochavi, Post-Holocaust Politics: Britain, the United States, & Jewish Refugees, 1945–1948, by Peter L. Hahn
  • Kollin, Nature’s State: Imagining Alaska as the Last Frontier, by Andrew Glenn Kirk
  • Kotlowski, Nixon’s Civil Rights: Politics, Principle, and Policy, by Harvard Sitkoff
  • Kreneck, Mexican American Odyssey: Felix Tijerina, Entrepreneur & Civic Leader, 1905–1965, by Mario T. García
  • Lamb and Tarling, From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Origins of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, by Russell D. Buhite
  • Leepson, Saving Monticello: The Levy Family’s Epic Quest to Rescue the House That Jefferson Built, by Carl R. Lounsbury
  • Lenner, The Federal Principle in American Politics, 1790–1833, by M. N. S. Sellers
  • Lepore, A Is for American: Letters and Other Characters in the Newly United States, by Lawrence Buell
  • Lindman and Tarter, eds., A Centre of Wonders: The Body in Early America, by Marilyn J. Westerkamp
  • Livingston, Swallowed by Globalism: John M. Vorys and American Foreign Policy, by David M. Esposito
  • Livingston, Pragmatism, Feminism, and Democracy: Rethinking the Politics of American History, by Andrew Feffer
  • Loeb, Entrepreneurial Vernacular: Developers’ Subdivisions in the 1920s, by Richard Harris
  • Lorenz, Defining Global Justice: The History of U.S. International Labor Standards Policy, by David Stebenne
  • Lowe, Sir Walter and Mr. Jones: Walter Hagen, Bobby Jones, and the Rise of American Golf, by Stephen Hardy
  • Mandell, The Corporation as Family: The Gendering of Corporate Welfare, 1890–1930, by Linda Gordon
  • Marlett, Saving the Heartland: Catholic Missionaries in Rural America, 1920–1960, by Michael F. Funchion
  • Martin, The Free and Open Press: The Founding of American Democratic Press Liberty, 1640–1800, by Charles E. Clark
  • May, Golden State, Golden Youth: The California Image in Popular Culture, 1955–1966, by Dana Polan
  • McAlister, Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East, 1945–2000, by Nathan Godfried
  • McFarland, Cold War Strategist: Stuart Symington and the Search for National Security, by Travis Beal Jacobs
  • McGrath, Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890–1960, by Peter J. Kuznick
  • Mendoza, Historia: The Literary Making of Chicana & Chicano History, by Gregory S. Rodríguez
  • Meriwether, Proudly We Can Be Africans: Black Americans and Africa, 1935–1961, by Renee Romano
  • Moitt, Women and Slavery in the French Antilles, 1635–1848, by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
  • Motsch, Lafitau et l’émergence du discours ethnographique (Lafitau and the emergence of ethnographic discourse), by Harry Liebersohn
  • Mulcahy, A Social Contract for the Coal Fields: The Rise and Fall of the United Mine Workers of America Welfare and Retirement Fund, by James Whiteside
  • Mulder, A Controversial Spirit: Evangelical Awakenings in the South, by James O. Farmer
  • Muller, Free to Die for Their Country: The Story of the Japanese American Draft Resisters in World War II, by Greg Robinson
  • Nash, First City: Philadelphia and the Forging of Historical Memory, by Richard Stott
  • Nealon, Foundlings: Lesbian and Gay Historical Emotion before Stonewall, by Christopher Castiglia
  • Newman, Getting Right with God: Southern Baptists and Desegregation, 1945–1995, by David Stricklin
  • Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic, by Daniel Feller
  • Norris, After “the Year Eighty”: The Demise of Franciscan Power in Spanish New Mexico, by Sylvia L. Hilton
  • O’Brien, Crippled Justice: The History of Modern Disability Policy in the Workplace, by Deborah Stone
  • O’Connell, Edward Sorin, by Gerald McKevitt
  • Obadele-Starks, Black Unionism in the Industrial South, by Walter T. Howard
  • Porter, To Be Indian: The Life of Iroquois-Seneca Arthur Caswell Parker, by James B. LaGrand
  • Porter, What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists, by Harry A. Reed
  • Pritchett, Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto, by Raymond A. Mohl
  • Rable, Fredericksburg! Fredericksburg!, by Mary A. DeCredico
  • Ramold, Slaves, Sailors, Citizens: African Americans in the Union Navy, by Donald R. Shaffer
  • Rangaswamy, Namasté America: Indian Immigrants in an American Metropolis, by Johanna Lessinger
  • Raphael, The First American Revolution: Before Lexington and Concord, by Colin Nicolson
  • Rivas, Missionary Capitalist: Nelson Rockefeller in Venezuela, by Eric Paul Roorda
  • Rokicky, James Monroe: Oberlin’s Christian Statesman & Reformer, 1821–1898, by Hugh Davis
  • Rothman, lbj’s Texas White House: “Our Heart’s Home”, by Melvin Small
  • Rottenberg, The Man Who Made Wall Street: Anthony J. Drexel and the Rise of Modern Finance, by Howard Bodenhorn
  • Rubertone, Grave Undertakings: An Archaeology of Roger Williams and the Narragansett Indians, by Michael Leroy Oberg
  • Ryden, Landscape with Figures: Nature & Culture in New England, by Philip G. Terrie
  • Sassi, A Republic of Righteousness: The Public Christianity of the Post-Revolutionary New England Clergy, by Joseph Conforti
  • Schain, ed., The Marshall Plan: Fifty Years After, by Federico Romero
  • Schloesser, The Fair Sex: White Women and Racial Patriarchy in the Early American Republic, by Jane E. Dabel
  • Scott-Smith, The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the cia, and Post-War American Hegemony, by Michael Joseph Hogan
  • Scribner, Renewing Birmingham: Federal Funding and the Promise of Change, 1929–1979, by David Goldfield
  • Silver-Isenstadt, Shameless: The Visionary Life of Mary Gove Nichols, by Nancy Tomes
  • Sioli, Le città della rivoluzione: Alle origini delle metropolis americane (The cities of the Revolution: To the origins of the American metropolises), by David Thomas Konig
  • Sivulka, Stronger than Dirt: A Cultural History of Advertising Personal Hygiene in America, 1875 to 1940, by Ian Gordon
  • Skeel, Debt’s Dominion: A History of Bankruptcy Law in America, by Charles Zelden
  • Sterngass, First Resorts: Pursuing Pleasure at Saratoga Springs, Newport, & Coney Island, by Cindy S. Aron
  • Suchoples, Finland and the United States, 1917–1919: Early Years of Mutual Relations, by T. Michael Ruddy
  • Thompson, Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City, by Nick Salvatore
  • Thompson, Divided We Stand: Watertown, Massachusetts, 1630–1680, by Len Travers
  • Tuck, Beyond Atlanta: The Struggle for Racial Equality in Georgia, 1940–1980, by Clayborne Carson
  • Tucker, Worthington Chauncey Ford: Scholar and Adventurer, by Robert Cummings
  • Ulrich, The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth, by Jan Ellen Lewis
  • Walton, Storied Land: Community and Memory in Monterey, by Eugene P. Moehring
  • Wang, Surviving the City: The Chinese Immigrant Experience in New York City, 1890–1970, by Sue Fawn Chung
  • Weaver-Zercher, The Amish in the American Imagination, by Theron F. Schlabach
  • Welke, Recasting American Liberty: Gender, Race, Law, and the Railroad Revolution, 1865–1920, by Herbert Hovenkamp
  • Whiteside, Colorado: A Sports History, by Michael A. Amundson
  • Wiethoff, The Insolent Slave, by Dickson D. Bruce Jr.
  • Williams, Improbable Warriors: Women Scientists and the U.S. Navy in World War II, by Ruth Howes
  • Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past, by James M. Banner Jr.
  • Winship, Making Heretics: Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636–1641, by Stephen J. Stein
  • Wrobel and Long, eds., Seeing and Being Seen: Tourism in the American West, by Steven Hoelscher
  • Zhang, Economic Cold War: America’s Embargo against China and the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1949–1963, by David M. Lampton

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • Virtual Jamestown, by David Jaffee (pp. 1627-28) Read online >
  • Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, by Anne Sarah Rubin (pp. 1628-29) Read online >
  • The South Texas Border, 1900–1920: Photographs from the Robert Runyon Collection, by Neil Foley (pp. 1629-30) Read online >
  • Toledo's Attic: A Virtual Museum of Toledo, Ohio, by Alison Isenberg (pp. 1630-31) Read online >
  • The Rutgers Oral History Archives of World War II, by James T. Sparrow (pp. 1631-32) Read online >
  • Regional Oral History Office, by Linda Shopes (p. 1632) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

“Recent Scholarship” is available online, Read online >

Contents of Volume 89

Index to Volume 89

thumbnail of cover

On the cover:

Perhaps the first photographic image of a Korean, taken by Felice Beato during the 1871 U.S. military expedition to “open” Korea. The man holds empty bottles of Bass Ale, with its trademark triangle symbol--nicknamed the “entering wedge of civilization”—and other spirit and wine bottles. He also holds a copy of Every Sunday, with a front-page picture of Charles Sumner. Courtesy Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, RBCDS915.P4f. See Gordon H. Chang, “Whose ‘Barbarism’? Whose ‘Treachery’?: Race and Civilization in the Unknown United States-Korea War of 1871,” p. 1331

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