Journal of American History


The Rise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures

The Rise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures

Looking beyond the romantic image of the triumphant mounted Indian, Pekka Hämäläinen shows that the rise of equestrian Indian societies on the Great Plains brought Native Americans both success and disaster. Horses brought some tribes wealth and power, allowing them to defy and occasionally eclipse Euro-American imperial designs, but for most tribes horses were a disruptive element that brought social inequality, ecological instability, economic devastation, and unprecedented violence. Hämäläinen identifies several distinctive horse cultures and shows that only one tribe, the Lakotas, achieved long-term stability. Attention to the Lakotas’ singular success, he argues, has distorted our understanding of Plains Indian history. (pp. 833–62) Read online >

From Municipal Socialism to Public Authorities: Institutional Factors in the Shaping of American Public Enterprise

The United States has a weak government that stays clear of producing goods and services, right? Wrong, argues Gail Radford. Although municipal socialists in the Progressive Era usually failed in their campaigns for direct governmental control of public services, subsequent experiments created a large sphere of quasi-governmental agencies, often called public authorities, engaged in public enterprise. Innovative methods of revenue-based funding overcame practical and legal obstacles to activist government without challenging a political culture deeply suspicious of governmental intrusions into the marketplace. Radford contends that although public authorities are often successful, their organization has masked the presence of the government. As a result, the American style of public enterprise has hindered the development of public planning and democratic governance. (pp. 863–90) Read online >

Reading Race into the Scopes Trial: African American Elites, Science, and Fundamentalism

Reading Race into the Scopes Trial

The 1925 trial of John Scopes for teaching evolution in a Tennessee biology class had echoes far outside the courtroom. Jeffrey P. Moran shows that in the public debate over science and religion sparked by the trial, elite African Americans were active participants. African Americans read their own meanings into the Scopes case, with race at their center. They identified southern efforts to silence threats to religious tradition with southern efforts to subject African Americans to the traditions of Jim Crow. Moran examines how secular African American leaders invoked the progressive power of science to attack white supremacy in the South and to challenge ministerial dominance in their own communities. (pp. 891–911) Read online >

Carey McWilliams and Antifascism, 1934–1943

Carey McWilliams and Antifascism

In exploring the early career of Carey McWilliams, a best-selling writer, activist lawyer, and controversial government official, Daniel Geary suggests the outlines of a history of the American Left as viewed from a West Coast perspective. In contrast to the sharply divided Left described by scholars drawing on East Coast sources, Geary finds a broadly based and amorphous California Left that defined itself by opposition to the perceived threat of an American “fascism.” In articulating an antifascist agenda during the 1930s and World War II, McWilliams and others championed civil liberties, supported labor (especially farm workers), and advanced a vision of ethnoracial democracy that proved a forerunner to contemporary multiculturalism. (pp. 912–34) Read online >

Building a Straight State: Sexuality and Social Citizenship under the 1944 G.I. Bill

In the essay that won the 2003 Louis Pelzer Award, Margot Canaday revises the generally celebratory literature on the G.I. Bill. Her account of the denial of G.I. benefits to World War II–era veterans undesirably discharged for homosexuality explores the connection between sexuality and citizenship in the still-forming welfare state. The Veterans Administration (va) used a strained interpretation of muddled language in the G.I. Bill to strip those who had received such discharges of benefits. Although postwar congressional criticism led to a temporary change in policy, the restrictive interpretation ultimately prevailed. Thus the G.I. Bill, as implemented by the va, established the first federal policy that explicitly excluded sexual minorities from the economic benefits of the welfare state. (pp. 935–57) Read online >

Exhibition Reviews

Exhibition Review: A Portion of the People
  • “Middle Passage Exhibit,” by Elizabeth S. Overman (pp. 958–60) Read online >
  • “Eye of the Storm: Civil War Drawings by Robert K. Sneden,” by Lance J. Herdegen (pp. 961–62) Read online >
  • “Call to Duty: Outagamie County in World War II,” by Stephen E. Kercher (pp. 963–64) Read online >
  • “A Portion of the People: Three Hundred Years of Southern Jewish Life,” by Leonard Rogoff (pp. 965–69) Read online >
  • “Japanese American Experience in Merced County,” by Nancy J. Taniguchi (pp. 970–71) Read online >
  • “Entertaining America: Jews, Movies, and Broadcasting,” by Stephen J. Whitfield (pp. 972–75) Read online >

Book Reviews

Dec. 2003, Vol. 90 No. 3

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Alanis Enciso, ed., La emigración de San Luis Potosí a Estados Unidos: Pasado y presente (Immigration from San Luis Potosí to the United States: Past and present), by Gilberto M. Hinojosa
  • Amundson, Yellowcake Towns: Uranium Mining Communities in the American West, by Ralph Mann
  • Anzilotti, In the Affairs of the World: Women, Patriarchy, and Power in Colonial South Carolina, by Linda L. Sturtz
  • Bagley, Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows, by Lawrence G. Coates
  • Bailyn, To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders, by Michael A. McDonnell
  • Banner, The Death Penalty: An American History, by Stephen Hartnett
  • Bergera, Conflict in the Quorum: Orson Pratt, Brigham Young, Joseph Smith, by Lawrence G. Coates
  • Block, A Nation of Agents: The American Path to a Modern Self and Society, by Michael Zuckerman
  • Bonner, Colors and Blood: Flag Passions of the Confederate South, by George C. Rable
  • Bonner, Iconoclast: Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning, by John S. Haller Jr.
  • Boylan, The Origins of Women’s Activism: New York and Boston, 1797–1840, by Mary C. Kelley
  • Brady and McCubbins, eds., Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress, by Julian E. Zelizer
  • Brosnan, Uniting Mountain & Plain: Cities, Law, and Environmental Change along the Front Range, by Mark S. Foster
  • Brown, Beyond the Lines: Pictorial Reporting, Everyday Life, and the Crisis of Gilded Age America, by John B. Jentz
  • Brown, Rosie’s Mom: Forgotten Women Workers of the First World War, by Maurine W. Greenwald
  • Brown, Jonathan Edwards and the Bible, by William Breitenbach
  • Buckley, The Great Catastrophe of My Life: Divorce in the Old Dominion, by Richard H. Chused
  • Butters, Black Manhood on the Silent Screen, by Daniel Bernardi
  • Calhoun, Price, and Timmer, eds., Understanding September 11, by Emily S. Rosenberg
  • Cashin, ed., The War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War, by Paul A. Cimbala
  • Chávez, “íMi Raza Primero!” (My People First!): Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles, 1966–1978, by Douglas Monroy
  • Coffey, Soldier Princess: The Life & Legend of Agnes Salm-Salm in North America, 1861–1867, by Elizabeth D. Leonard
  • Collins, Otto Kahn: Art, Money, & Modern Time, by William B. Scott
  • Cooper, By Order of the President: The Use and Abuse of Executive Direct Action, by Robert M. Goldman
  • Cooper, Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations, by David Steigerwald
  • Crane, Killed Strangely: The Death of Rebecca Cornell, by Terri L. Snyder
  • Dal Lago and Halpern, eds., The American South and the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History, by Don H. Doyle
  • Dale, Debating—and Creating—Authority: The Failure of a Constitutional Ideal in Massachusetts Bay, 1629–1649, by Darren Staloff
  • Daly, When Slavery Was Called Freedom: Evangelicalism, Proslavery, and the Causes of the Civil War, by Randy J. Sparks
  • Davis and Trani, The First Cold War: The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson in U.S.-Soviet Relations, by David W. McFadden
  • Davis, Land!: Irish Pioneers in Mexican and Revolutionary Texas, by Dennis C. Rousey
  • Davis, The Circus Age: Culture & Society under the American Big Top, by Don B. Wilmeth
  • De Wolfe, Shaking the Faith: Women, Family, and Mary Marshall Dyer’s Anti-Shaker Campaign, 1815–1867, by Carolyn J. Lawes
  • Delfino and Gillespie, eds., Neither Lady nor Slave: Working Women of the Old South, by Christie Anne Farnham [Pope]
  • Delton, Making Minnesota Liberal: Civil Rights and the Transformation of the Democratic Party, by Peter Rachleff
  • Dennis, Red, White, and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar, by April Schultz
  • Dodge, “Whores and Thieves of the Worst Kind”: A Study of Women, Crime, and Prisons, 1835–2000, by Mary Welek Atwell
  • Doig, Empire on the Hudson: Entrepreneurial Vision and Political Power at the Port of New York Authority, by Barbara Blumberg
  • Dolan, In Search of an American Catholicism: A History of Religion and Culture in Tension, by Patrick Allitt
  • Dorsey, Reforming Men and Women: Gender in the Antebellum City, by Ronald G. Walters
  • Dowd, War under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, & the British Empire, by Jon Parmenter
  • Downey, Telegraph Messenger Boys: Labor, Technology, and Geography, 1850–1950, by William S. Pretzer
  • Dreisbach, Thomas Jefferson and the Wall of Separation between Church and State, by Richard W. Pointer
  • Ekberg, François Vallé and His World: Upper Louisiana before Lewis and Clark, by Patricia Cleary
  • Engs and Miller, eds., The Birth of the Grand Old Party: The Republicans’ First Generation, by William C. Harris
  • Evans, The Hidden Campaign: fdr’s Health and the 1944 Election, by Howard W. Allen
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 1890–2000, by Robert J. Cook
  • Ferguson, Black Politics in New Deal Atlanta, by Stephen G. N. Tuck
  • Fine-Dare, Grave Injustice: The American Indian Repatriation Movement and nagpra, by Jonathan Elmer
  • Gilbert, ed., Why the North Won the Vietnam War, by Dale Andradé
  • Gordon, Mill Girls and Strangers: Single Women’s Independent Migration in England, Scotland, and the United States, 1850–1881, by Mary H. Blewett
  • Grimsley, And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June 1864, by Michael B. Ballard
  • Gruenwald, River of Enterprise: The Commercial Origins of Regional Identity in the Ohio Valley, 1790–1850, by Patrick Griffin
  • Hanson, Animal Attractions: Nature on Display in American Zoos, by Brett Mizelle
  • Harvey, A Question of Justice: New South Governors and Education, 1968–1976, by Clarence L. Mohr
  • Hauptman and McLester, Chief Daniel Bread and the Oneida Nation of Indians of Wisconsin, by David R. M. Beck
  • Haynes, Noah’s Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery, by Randy J. Sparks
  • Hershberg and Moore, eds., Critical Views of September 11: Analyses from around the World, by Emily S. Rosenberg
  • Hietala, The Fight of the Century: Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and the Struggle for Racial Equality, by Lauren Rebecca Sklaroff
  • Hindman, Child Labor: An American History, by Bonnie Stepenoff
  • Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment, by James Delbourgo
  • Horowitz, Rereading Sex: Battles over Sexual Knowledge and Suppression in Nineteenth-Century America, by Steven Mintz
  • Hyslop, Bound for Santa Fe: The Road to New Mexico and the American Conquest, 1806–1848, by Charles R. Cutter
  • Illick, American Childhoods, by Ruth Wallis Herndon
  • Isenberg and Burstein, eds., Mortal Remains: Death in Early America, by Erik R. Seeman
  • Iverson, Diné: A History of the Navajos, by Richard O. Clemmer
  • Jaher, The Jews and the Nation: Revolution, Emancipation, State Formation, and the Liberal Paradigm in America and France, by Robert Rockaway
  • Jones, Mama Learned Us to Work: Farm Women in the New South, by Claudia Drieling
  • Kelley, Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination, by Dean E. Robinson
  • Kelly, James Burnham and the Struggle for the World: A Life, by John Ehrman
  • Kilde, When Church Became Theatre: The Transformation of Evangelical Architecture and Worship in Nineteenth-Century America, by Paul Eli Ivey
  • Kindsvatter, American Soldiers: Ground Combat in the World Wars, Korea, and Vietnam, by Edward J. Drea
  • Kirchner, Der Central Park in New York und der Einfluß der deutschen Gartentheorie und -praxis auf seine Gestaltung (Central Park in New York and the influence of German garden theory and practice on its creation), by Dorothee Schneider
  • Knight, Disintegrating the Musical: Black Performance and American Musical Film, by William J. Mahar
  • Kornweibel, “Investigate Everything”: Federal Efforts to Compel Black Loyalty during World War I, by Mark Robert Schneider
  • Korr, The End of Baseball as We Knew It: The Players Union, 1960–81, by Warren Goldstein
  • Lemire, “Miscegenation”: Making Race in America, by Joanne Pope Melish
  • Lindenauer, Piety and Power: Gender and Religious Culture in the American Colonies, 1630–1700, by Gerald F. Moran
  • Longenecker, Shenandoah Religion: Outsiders and the Mainstream, 1716–1865, by Daniel B. Thorp
  • Lowitt, Fred Harris: His Journey from Liberalism to Populism, by Patrick L. Cox
  • Maga, America Attacks Japan: The Invasion That Never Was, by Grant K. Goodman
  • Mann, Behind the Screen: How Gays and Lesbians Shaped Hollywood, 1910–1969, by Marguerite J. Moritz
  • Marra and Schanke, eds., Staging Desire: Queer Readings of American Theater History, by David Van Leer
  • Mattingly, Suburban Landscapes: Culture and Politics in a New York Metropolitan Community, by James Borchert
  • May, Manifest Destiny’s Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America, by Robert L. Paquette
  • McBride, Missions for Science: U.S. Technology and Medicine in America’s African World, by Margaret Humphreys
  • McCool, Native Waters: Contemporary Indian Water Settlements and the Second Treaty Era, by Donald J. Pisani
  • McKanna, Race and Homicide in Nineteenth-Century California, by Harold Brackman
  • McPherson, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, by Edward G. Longacre
  • Merrill, Public Lands and Political Meaning: Ranchers, the Government, and the Property between Them, by R. McGreggor Cawley
  • Metcalf, Termination’s Legacy: The Discarded Indians of Utah, by David Rich Lewis
  • Mires, Independence Hall in American Memory, by Robert E. Cray Jr.
  • Monhollon, “This is America?”: The Sixties in Lawrence, Kansas, by Edward P. Morgan
  • Moore, Acts of Faith: The Catholic Church in Texas, 1900–1950, by John W. Storey
  • Moore, Carl B. Stokes and the Rise of Black Political Power, by Ben Keppel
  • Morgan, Nixon, by John Robert Greene
  • Morgan, Benjamin Franklin, by Owen S. Ireland
  • Morley, Irish Opinion and the American Revolution, 1760–1783, by Colin Bonwick
  • Morrow, Persons of Color and Religious at the Same Time: The Oblate Sisters of Providence, 1828–1860, by Albert J. Raboteau
  • Moss, When All Else Fails: Government as the Ultimate Risk Manager, by Warren J. Samuels
  • Mullin, The Puritan as Yankee: A Life of Horace Bushnell, by Howard A. Barnes
  • Nevins, Operation Gatekeeper: The Rise of the “Illegal Alien” and the Making of the U.S.-Mexico Boundary, by Neil Foley
  • Nolt, Foreigners in Their Own Land: Pennsylvania Germans in the Early Republic, by Liam Riordan
  • O’Brien, Choctaws in a Revolutionary Age, 1750–1830, by Arthur H. DeRosier Jr.
  • O’Toole, Passing for White: Race, Religion, and the Healy Family, 1820–1920, by Gerald Horne
  • Olmsted, Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley, by Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones
  • Olson, Bathsheba’s Breast: Women, Cancer, & History, by Barbara Clow
  • Ownby, ed., The Role of Ideas in the Civil Rights South, by Paul V. Murphy
  • Palmer, Children’s Voices from the Trail: Narratives of the Platte River Road, by Ruth B. Moynihan
  • Paton-Walsh, Our War Too: American Women against the Axis, by Judy Barrett Litoff
  • Pease and Wiegman, eds., The Futures of American Studies, by Ann Fabian
  • Pellow, Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago, by Perry R. Duis
  • Perdue, “Mixed Blood” Indians: Racial Construction in the Early South, by Jane T. Merritt
  • Polletta, Freedom Is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements, by Stewart Burns
  • Ponce de Leon, Self-Exposure: Human-Interest Journalism and the Emergence of Celebrity in America, 1890–1940, by John Nerone
  • Purcell, Sealed with Blood: War, Sacrifice, and Memory in Revolutionary America, by Sarah Knott
  • Regosin, Freedom’s Promise: Ex-Slave Families and Citizenship in the Age of Emancipation, by Cheryll Ann Cody
  • Reiß, “Die Schwarzen waren unsere Freunde”: Deutsche Kriegsgefangene in der amerikanischen Gesellschaft, 1942–1946 (“The blacks were our friends”: German prisoners of war in American society, 1942–1946), by Dennis E. Showalter
  • Remini, Andrew Jackson & His Indian Wars, by Ronald N. Satz
  • Rhea, Cold Harbor: Grant and Lee, May 26–June 3, 1864, by Michael B. Ballard
  • Rorabaugh, Kennedy and the Promise of the Sixties, by Alexander Bloom
  • Rotella, Good with Their Hands: Boxers, Bluesmen, and Other Characters from the Rust Belt, by John J. Bukowczyk
  • Rotskoff, Love on the Rocks: Men, Women, and Alcohol in Post–World War II America, by Beth Bailey
  • Rubenstein, Making and Selling Cars: Innovation and Change in the U.S. Automotive Industry, by David Gartman
  • Rudolph, Scientists in the Classroom: The Cold War Reconstruction of American Science Education, by Ronald Lora
  • Salmond, The General Textile Strike of 1934: From Maine to Alabama, by Clifford M. Kuhn
  • Sayre, Ranching, Endangered Species, and Urbanization in the Southwest: Species of Capital, by Adam M. Sowards
  • Schrijvers, The gi War against Japan: American Soldiers in Asia and the Pacific during World War II, by Edward J. Drea
  • Schultz, The Romance of Small-Town Chautauquas, by Russell L. Johnson
  • Sernett, North Star Country: Upstate New York and the Crusade for African American Freedom, by Thomas J. Davis
  • Shackel, ed., Myth, Memory, and the Making of the American Landscape, by Kym S. Rice
  • Shaw and Francia, eds., Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899–1999, by Nick Cullather
  • Siemers, Ratifying the Republic: Antifederalists and Federalists in Constitutional Time, by Andrew Shankman
  • Smant, Principles and Heresies: Frank S. Meyer and the Shaping of the American Conservative Movement, by John Ehrman
  • Smith, Henry M. Teller: Colorado’s Grand Old Man, by John D. W. Guice
  • Solinger, Beggars and Choosers: How the Politics of Choice Shapes Adoption, Abortion, and Welfare in the United States, by Janet Farrell Brodie
  • Stueck, Rethinking the Korean War: A New Diplomatic and Strategic History, by Burton I. Kaufman
  • Taylor, The Veiled Garvey: The Life & Times of Amy Jacques Garvey, by Emory Joel Tolbert
  • Taylor, Young Charles Sumner and the Legacy of the American Enlightenment, 1811–1851, by Peter S. Field
  • Taylor, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, & Culture, by David Sanjek
  • Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900–1933, by David Morton
  • Toplin, Reel History: In Defense of Hollywood, by John E. O’Connor
  • Tucker, The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, by Daniel J. Kevles
  • Van Buskirk, Generous Enemies: Patriots and Loyalists in Revolutionary New York, by Wayne Bodle
  • Veeser, A World Safe for Capitalism: Dollar Diplomacy and America’s Rise to Global Power, by Luis Martínez-Fernández
  • Vlach, The Planter’s Prospect: Privilege and Slavery in Plantation Paintings, by John Davis
  • Walbert, Garden Spot: Lancaster County, the Old Order Amish, and the Selling of Rural America, by John A. Jakle
  • Ward, Between the Lines: Banditti of the American Revolution, by Wayne E. Lee
  • Weisberger, McLeod, and Morris, eds., Freemasonry on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Essays Concerning the Craft in the British Isles, Europe, the United States, and Mexico, by Jeanne Halgren Kilde
  • Winch, A Gentleman of Color: The Life of James Forten, by Elizabeth Rauh Bethel
  • Winterer, The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780–1910, by Thomas L. Pangle
  • Wolcott, Remaking Respectability: African American Women in Interwar Detroit, by Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham
  • Wrobel, Promised Lands: Promotion, Memory, and the Creation of the American West, by Glen Gendzel
  • Yuh, Beyond the Shadow of Camptown: Korean Military Brides in America, by Mary Anne Schofield
  • Zhang, America Perceived: The Making of Chinese Images of the United States, 1945–1953, by Warren I. Cohen
  • Zhang, The Origins of the African American Civil Rights Movement, 1865–1956, by Karen Ferguson
  • Zimmerman, Whose America?: Culture Wars in the Public Schools, by Herbert M. Kliebard
  • Zimmermann, First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power, by Frank Ninkovich
  • Zunz, Schoppa, and Hiwatari, eds., Social Contracts under Stress: The Middle Classes of America, Europe, and Japan at the Turn of the Century, by Sven Beckert

Movie Reviews

  • Slave Ship, by Daniel C. Littlefield (p. 1120) Read online >
  • Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor, by James Kirby Martin (p. 1121–2) Read online >
  • Gods and Generals, by Steven E. Woodworth (p. 1123) Read online >
  • Gangs of New York, by J. Matthew Gallman (p. 1124–5) Read online >
  • Transcontinental Railroad, by Herbert Hovenkamp (p. 1126) Read online >
  • Frontier House, by Carroll Van West (p. 1127) Read online >
  • Open Range, by Stanley Corkin (p. 1128–9) Read online >
  • Chicago: City of the Century, by Virginia R. Stewart (p. 1130) Read online >
  • Monkey Trial, by Shawn Francis Peters (p. 1131) Read online >
  • Oh Freedom after While, by Andrew E. Kersten (p. 1131) Read online >
  • Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin, by Jo Ann O. Robinson (p. 1132) Read online >
  • Ralph Ellison: An American Journey, by Keith E. Byerman (p. 1133) Read online >
  • The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, by Charles H. Martin (pp. 1134–35) Read online >
  • The Perilous Fight: America’s World War II in Color, by Blaine T. Browne (p. 1136) Read online >
  • The Murder of Emmett Till, by James R. Ralph Jr. (p. 1137) Read online >
  • Selma: The City and the Symbol, by Robyn Ceanne Spencer (p. 1138) Read online >
  • A Home on the Range: The Jewish Chicken Farmers of Petaluma, by Victoria Saker Woeste (p. 1139) Read online >
  • The Pill, by Carla Bittel (p. 1139) Read online >
  • Jimmy Carter, by Robert A. Strong (pp. 1140–1) Read online >
  • Struggling Unions, by Dorothy Sue Cobble (p. 1142) Read online >
  • The Clinton Years, by Gil Troy (p. 1143) Read online >
  • Bowling for Columbine, by Ron Briley (p. 1144–5) Read online >
  • Let’s Get Married, by Ellen Herman (p. 1146) Read online >

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • Bethlehem Digital History Project, by Timothy D. Hall (p. 1148) Read online >
  • Ohio Memory: An Online Scrapbook of Ohio History, by Susan E. Gray (p. 1149) Read online >
  • Mission to Arizona, 1916–1940: Father Augustine Schwarz, O.F.M., by Kevin Mulroy (p. 1150) Read online >
  • The National Security Archive; and Digital National Security Archive, by Chester Pach (p. 1151) Read online >
  • NativeWeb, by Roger L. Nichols (p. 1152) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

“Recent Scholarship” is available online, Read online >

thumbnail of cover

On the cover:

A Brulé Lakota camp near Wounded Knee (now in South Dakota) photographed in 1891. The Lakotas’ dramatic expansion in the early nineteenth century and their prolonged resistance to the United States late in the century stemmed largely from their exceptionally successful equestrian adaptation to the abundant yet fragile riverine environments of the Plains. Courtesy Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, Call number NS-289. See Pekka Hämäläinen, “The Rise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures,” p. 833.

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