Journal of American History

Round Table

Brown v. Board of Education, Fifty Years After

Whose Integration Was It? An Introduction

Kevin Gaines provides an overview of the reassessments of Brown v. Board of Education and its legacy that appear in our round table, “ Brown v. Board of Education, Fifty Years After.” More sobering than celebratory, the essays’ critical approaches are occasioned by the decision’s limited impact and the persistence of segregation in the nation’s housing and schools. The essays recover histories submerged by triumphalist contemporary and historical narratives about Brown, histories that account for enduring inequality and the corrosive impact of racialism on American political culture. Ranging far beyond the courtroom, the essays probe the centrality of race in Cold War-era American politics and society and suggest that integration policy often arose from and served the needs of the state more than those of African Americans. (pp. 19–25) Read online >

Two Cheers for Brown v. Board of Education

Fifty years after the Brown decision, the Jim Crow system of legal segregation has been eliminated, but American public education remains racially segregated. Clayborne Carson finds the post-Brown strategy of seeking racial advancement through integration too narrow. The poor quality of many predominantly black public schools still denies many black students the Supreme Court’s ideal of educational opportunity as “a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.” Arguments over schools’ racial composition addressed only one aspect of the problem of unequal education. Carson argues that the Supreme Court and the lawyers for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, who won the Brown case, should have launched a two-pronged attack on racial segregation and unequal educational opportunity in predominantly black schools. (pp. 26–31) Read online >

Brown as a Cold War Case

American history texts often discuss Brown and the Cold War in separate passages, as if they were unrelated to each other. But Mary L. Dudziak argues that Brown is best understood as part of Cold War history. The Justice Department’s brief in Brown argued that school segregation undermined U.S. prestige in other countries, harming U.S. foreign relations. Because the Supreme Court had already been grappling with Cold War concerns in its McCarthy-era cases, such arguments were made to a receptive audience. Formal legal change in Brown improved the U.S. image abroad, whether or not actual desegregation followed. This story helps us see that seemingly “domestic” American histories have international dimensions and underscores the value of internationalizing American legal history. (pp. 32–42) Read online >

The Costs of Brown: Black Teachers and School Integration

A segregated school in White Plains, Georgia, 1941. African American teachers and students grappled with inadequate facilities, forming bonds that benefited intellectual and community development.
Courtesy Library of Congress.

Have historians overestimated the popularity of school integration among African Americans in the South? That black teachers often had misgivings about Brown has usually been attributed to self-interested conservatism. Adam Fairclough, in contrast, argues that many blacks regarded segregated schools with pride, as community institutions in which they had invested for nearly a century. Segregated schools were as much a product of black agency as of racial discrimination. From the earliest days of emancipation, black teachers had served as community leaders, and many blacks preferred them to white teachers. When the implementation of Brown caused black schools to close their doors and black teachers to lose their status and their jobs, many questioned whether integration had been worth the price. (pp. 43–55) Read online >

The Many Facets of Brown: Integration in a Multiracial Society

A local newspaper identified Y. Yanagi, shown at work, as the first Japanese American to reopen a barbershop in Little Tokyo following the wartime internment.  The poster in the background promoting National Negro Insurance Week suggests that the shop served African American customers as well as Japanese American ones.
Courtesy Los Angeles Public Library.

In the era of Brown, discourse about “race relations” centered on whites and blacks, but the bold demographic changes of the past fifty years compel scholars to make sense of a multiracial social order. The ongoing struggle for integration and social justice increasingly depends on the construction of multiracial coalitions. In a pioneering study of such coalitions, Scott Kurashige highlights efforts to build solidarity between black and Japanese Americans in the overlapping spaces the two groups occupied in postwar Los Angeles. Kurashige urges greater attention to the interactions between communities that are transforming American culture and politics. (pp. 56–68) Read online >

Postwar Pluralism, Brown v. Board of Education, and the Origins of Multicultural Education

Viewing multiculturalism as a departure from the vision of race relations inspired by Brown, many scholars have traced today’s prevailing racial ideology to the black power movement of the 1960s. True to that origin, critics of multiculturalism believe, it promotes separatism, overwrought group consciousness, the suffocation of individualism, and the decline of class politics. Daryl Michael Scott argues that the tendency to conflate multiculturalism with ethnocentrism ignores the continuity between multiculturalism and postwar racial liberalism. Postwar pluralist, integrationist, and therapeutic ideals, not Afrocentrism, produced a new race relations paradigm that laid the intellectual foundation for the Brown decision and served as a bridge to multiculturalism. (pp. 69–82) Read online >

“The Whole United States Is Southern!”: Brown v. Board and the Mystification of Race

While its symbolic importance cannot be doubted, Brown v. Board of Education did not transform race relations in the ways its advocates hoped and its critics feared. How is it that so many people on both sides of the issue initially misconstrued the meaning of the decision? Charles M. Payne argues that the initial misreadings of Brown reveal a confused understanding of the systemic character of white supremacy. The national discourse on race at midcentury, which focused on interpersonal relations and law, obscured as much as it revealed, making it difficult to see the similarities between the South and the North. Brown was a strike against segregation as law and ideology, but only a glancing blow against the more tangled problem of racism. (pp. 83–91) Read online >

From Racial Liberalism to Racial Literacy: Brown v. Board of Education and the Interest-Divergence Dilemma

To understand why Brown has not lived up to its promise, Lani Guinier traces the shortcomings of racial liberalism and calls for a new paradigm of racial literacy. In Brown, racial liberalism triumphed by perpetuating the false belief that integration was possible without significant redistribution of resources and power. Its individualistic, psychological, and prejudice-centered view of the obstacles to equality failed to anticipate the resistance of whites, north and south, who experienced integration as a loss of status. To expose the way racism structures economic and political opportunity, Guinier calls for racial literacy, an ability to read the concept of race as an instrument of social, geographic, and economic control of both whites and blacks. (pp. 92–118) Read online >

Additional Resources

Documents Online:
Related Web sites:


Sex, Segregation, and the Sacred after Brown

Quoting Matthew 7:17, the cover of D. B. Red’s pamphlet A Corrupt Tree Bringeth Forth Evil Fruit makes the common argument that Communists were behind school integration in the United States and that the Communists’ larger plot was race mixing. Carrying an endorsement by Mississippi senator James O. Eastland, the cover suggests that school integration will destroy racial purity.
Courtesy University of Mississippi.

The religious history of the civil rights movement is strangely one-sided. “God was on our side,” the activists have said, and scholars have tended to agree. But the opponents of civil rights also used religion in their cause. Jane Dailey argues that historians have underestimated the role of religion in supporting segregation as well as in dismantling it. Viewing the civil rights movement as a contest over Christian orthodoxy helps explain the arguments made by both sides and the strategic actions they took. Dailey examines the connections among antimiscegenation anxiety, politics, and religion to reveal how deeply interwoven Christian theology was in the segregation ideology that supported the discriminatory world of Jim Crow. (pp. 119–44) Read online >

Affirmative Action from Below: Civil Rights, the Building Trades, and the Politics of Racial Equality in the Urban North, 1945–1969

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (naacp) members picket a school construction site at Thirty-first and Dauphin streets in Philadelphia’s predominantly African American Strawberry Mansion neighborhood to protest discrimination against African Americans in the building trades, May 27, 1963. Neighborhood residents and civil rights activists from throughout the city joined the protests.
Courtesy Temple University Libraries

Affirmative action is one of the most controversial legacies of the civil rights era. Thomas J. Sugrue finds the origins of workplace affirmative action in civil rights activists’ postwar struggle to break open Philadelphia’s white-dominated construction trades. Through antidiscrimination initiatives, protests, and counterprotests in the urban North, local civil rights activists and construction unionists initiated a battle over employment discrimination that eventually made its way onto the national stage. Placing affirmative action into the history of the northern freedom struggle, Sugrue brings together the often artificially separate histories of grass-roots activism and national-level policy making. (pp. 145–73) Read online >

Exhibition Reviews

A life-size figure of Rosa Parks sits on a Montgomery, Alabama, city bus restored to look as it did in 1955, when Mrs. Parks refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. Her refusal helped mobilize the Montgomery bus boycott.
Courtesy National Civil Rights Museum.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site; Birmingham Civil Rights Institute; and National Civil Rights Museum, by David A. Zonderman (pp. 174–82) Read online >
  • “Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis and Clark and the Revealing of America;” and “Beyond Lewis and Clark: The Army Explores the West,” by John Rennie Short (pp. 183–86) Read online >
  • “The Price of Freedom: Anthony Burns and the Fugitive Slave Act,” by Martin Blatt (pp. 187–88) Read online >
  • “The Chinese American Experience in Minnesota,” by Erika Lee (pp. 189–91) Read online >
  • “Remembering Generations: The Greek Immigrant’s Journey,” by George A. Kourvetaris (p. 196) Read online >
  • Texas Prison Museum, by Alex Lichtenstein (pp. 197–200) Read online >

Book Reviews

June 2004, Vol. 91 No. 1

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, African Americans, and Racial Anxiety in the United States, 1848–82, by Benson Tong
  • Addis, Jefferson’s Vision for Education, 1760–1845, by David W. Robson
  • Ash, A Year in the South: Four Lives in 1865, by Mark Grimsley
  • Atkins, Gay Seattle: Stories of Exile and Belonging, by Marc Stein
  • Bach, Voices of the Turtledoves: The Sacred World of Ephrata, by Timothy Miller
  • Bays and Wacker, eds., The Foreign Missionary Enterprise at Home: Explorations in North American Cultural History, by Paul William Harris
  • Berg Sobré, San Antonio on Parade: Six Historic Festivals, by Walter L. Buenger
  • Bernard, The Cajuns: Americanization of a People, by Michael L. Kurtz
  • Bingham, Mordecai: An Early American Family, by Mark S. Schantz
  • Biondi, To Stand and Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City, by Kevin Mumford
  • Bloom and Willard, eds., Sports Matters: Race, Recreation, and Culture, by Daniel A. Nathan
  • Blue, Words at War: World War II Era Radio Drama and the Postwar Broadcasting Industry Blacklist, by David Culbert
  • Boag, Same-Sex Affairs: Constructing and Controlling Homosexuality in the Pacific Northwest, by William B. Turner
  • Bodle, The Valley Forge Winter: Civilians and Soldiers in War, by Michael P. Gabriel
  • Bolkhovitinov, ed., Amerikanskaia tsivilizatsiia kak istoricheskii fenomen: Vospriiatie SShA v amerikanskoi, zapadnoevropeiskoi, i russkoi obshchestvennoi mysli (American civilization as a historical phenomenon: Perception of the United States in American, west European, and Russian social thought), by David C. Engerman
  • Boyd, Wide-Open Town: A History of Queer San Francisco to 1965, by William B. Turner
  • Branham and Hartnett, Sweet Freedom’s Song: “My Country ’Tis of Thee” and Democracy in America, by Ronald D. Cohen
  • Brett, The U.S. Catholic Press on Central America: From Cold War Anticommunism to Social Justice, by Stephen G. Rabe
  • Brisbin, A Strike like No Other Strike: Law & Resistance during the Pittston Coal Strike of 1989–1990, by Richard P. Mulcahy
  • Brown and Brown, The Hanging of Ephraim Wheeler: A Story of Rape, Incest, and Justice in Early America, by C. Dallett Hemphill
  • Bruce, A Fraternity of Arms: America and France in the Great War, by David M. Esposito
  • Burns and Orsi, eds., Taming the Elephant: Politics, Government, and Law in Pioneer California, by Mark A. Eifler
  • Busch, All the Way with jfk? Britain, the US, and the Vietnam War, by Mitchell Lerner
  • Campbell-Kelly, From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry, by Colin Burke
  • Cantu and Warren, Teaching History in the Digital Classroom, by David S. Trask
  • Carafano, Waltzing into the Cold War: The Struggle for Occupied Austria, by Siegfried Beer
  • Carp, ed., Adoption in America: Historical Perspectives, by Rickie Solinger
  • Carroll, Felix Longoria’s Wake: Bereavement, Racism, and the Rise of Mexican American Activism, by Carl Allsup
  • Chafe, ed., The Achievement of American Liberalism: The New Deal and Its Legacies, by Robert C. Lieberman
  • Chet, Conquering the American Wilderness: The Triumph of European Warfare in the Colonial Northeast, by James D. Drake
  • Crane, Race, Citizenship, and Law in American Literature, by Jared Gardner
  • Dawley, Changing the World: American Progressives in War and Revolution, by Mark Pittenger
  • De León, Racial Frontiers: Africans, Chinese, and Mexicans in Western America, 1848–1890, by Benson Tong
  • DeCaro, “Fire from the Midst of You”: A Religious Life of John Brown, by Stanley Harrold
  • Denenberg, Wallace Nutting and the Invention of Old America, by Harvey Green
  • DeRogatis, Moral Geography: Maps, Missionaries, and the American Frontier, by Gregory Nobles
  • Dinerstein, Swinging the Machine: Modernity, Technology, and African American Culture between the World Wars, by Burton W. Peretti
  • Dobak and Phillips, The Black Regulars, 1866–1898, by Geoffrey Hunt
  • Douthit, Uncertain Encounters: Indians and Whites at Peace and War in Southern Oregon, 1820s to 1860s, by Robert Carriker
  • Dowbiggin, A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America, by Thomas R. Cole
  • Durr, Behind the Backlash: White Working-Class Politics in Baltimore, 1940–1980, by Eric Arnesen
  • Evans, Tidal Wave: How Women Changed America at Century’s End, by Jane Gerhard
  • Ferling, A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic, by Edward Countryman
  • Fett, Working Cures: Healing, Health, and Power on Southern Slave Plantations, by James O. Breeden
  • Findlay and Coates, eds., Parallel Destinies: Canadian-American Relations West of the Rockies, by Robert Bothwell
  • Fink, The Maya of Morganton: Work and Community in the Nuevo New South, by Gregg Andrews
  • Fisher, Nazi Saboteurs on Trial: A Military Tribunal and American Law, by Philippa Strum
  • Fitzgerald, Urban Emancipation: Popular Politics in Reconstruction Mobile, 1860–1890, by Eric Anderson
  • Fitzgerald, Every Farm a Factory: The Industrial Ideal in American Agriculture, by Lorraine Garkovich
  • Foster, The Captors’ Narrative: Catholic Women and Their Puritan Men on the Early American Frontier, by Emerson W. Baker
  • Foulkes, Modern Bodies: Dance and American Modernism from Martha Graham to Alvin Ailey, by Anya Peterson Royce
  • Friedman and McGarvie, eds., Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History, by John C. Schneider
  • Gennaro Lerda and Maccarini, eds., Canadian and American Women: Moving from Private to Public Experiences in the Atlantic World, by Nancy Janovicek
  • Goff and Wacker, eds., Portraits of a Generation: Early Pentecostal Leaders, by Richard Kyle
  • Gordon and Gordon, Literacy in America: Historic Journey and Contemporary Solutions, by E. Jennifer Monaghan
  • Gordon, Black Identity: Rhetoric, Ideology, and Nineteenth-Century Black Nationalism, by Wilson Jeremiah Moses
  • Gould, The Modern American Presidency, by Louis W. Liebovich
  • Grant, Down and Out on the Family Farm: Rural Rehabilitation in the Great Plains, 1929–1945, by Catherine McNicol Stock
  • Greenspan, Creating Colonial Williamsburg, by Johanna Miller Lewis
  • Hacker, The Divided Welfare State: The Battle over Public and Private Social Benefits in the United States, by Bruce S. Jansson
  • Hagedorn, Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad, by Matthew Pinsker
  • Haney López, Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice, by Rodolfo F. Acuña
  • Hanson, Mary McLeod Bethune & Black Women’s Political Activism, by Barbara J. Bair
  • Hardwick, Mythic Galveston: Reinventing America’s Third Coast, by James C. Maroney
  • Hearden, Architects of Globalism: Building a New World Order during World War II, by R. Craig Nation
  • Hendrickson, Peace Pact: The Lost World of the American Founding, by Kevin R. C. Gutzman
  • Hirsch, After the Strike: A Century of Labor Struggle at Pullman, by Victoria Bissell Brown
  • Hoeveler, Creating the American Mind: Intellect and Politics in the Colonial Colleges, by Melvin Yazawa
  • Hoffer, The Great New York Conspiracy of 1741: Slavery, Crime, and Colonial Law, by Graham Russell Gao Hodges
  • Horn, Lewis, and Onuf, eds., The Revolution of 1800: Democracy, Race, and the New Republic, by John P. Kaminski
  • Horten, Radio Goes to War: The Cultural Politics of Propaganda during World War II, by Thomas Doherty
  • Hudson, The Making of “Mammy Pleasant”: A Black Entrepreneur in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco, by Barbara J. Bair
  • Hunt, Marion Butler and American Populism, by Orval Gene Clanton
  • Hyde, ed., Sunbelt Revolution: The Historical Progression of the Civil Rights Struggle in the Gulf South, 1866–2000, by Gregg L. Michel
  • Ivy, No Saloon in the Valley: The Southern Strategy of Texas Prohibitionists in the 1880s, by Richard F. Hamm
  • Jackson, with Burtniak and Stein, The Mighty Niagara: One River—Two Frontiers, by Peter C. Mancall
  • Jeffries, Huey P. Newton: The Radical Theorist, by John T. McCartney
  • Jensen, Davidann, and Sugita, eds., Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century, by Barbara Bennett Peterson
  • Jones, Valuing Animals: Veterinarians and Their Patients in Modern America, by G. Terry Sharrer
  • Jones, Toward a Just World: The Critical Years in the Search for International Justice, by Michael Dunne
  • Kennedy, Mr. Jefferson’s Lost Cause: Land, Farmers, Slavery, and the Louisiana Purchase, by Michael A. Morrison
  • Kirsch, Baseball in Blue and Gray: The National Pastime during the Civil War, by Steven A. Riess
  • Kolchin, A Sphinx on the American Land: The Nineteenth-Century South in Comparative Perspective, by Bertram Wyatt-Brown
  • Korstad, Civil Rights Unionism: Tobacco Workers and the Struggle for Democracy in the Mid-Twentieth-Century South, by Peter B. Levy
  • Kukla, A Wilderness So Immense: The Louisiana Purchase and the Destiny of America, by Michael A. Morrison
  • Kupel, Fuel for Growth: Water and Arizona’s Urban Environment, by Daniel McCool
  • LaGrand, Indian Metropolis: Native Americans in Chicago, 1945–75, by Dominic A. Pacyga
  • Laville, Cold War Women: The International Activities of American Women’s Organisations, by Mary L. Dudziak
  • Le Beau, The Atheist: Madalyn Murray O’Hair, by Bruce J. Dierenfield
  • Lebsock, A Murder in Virginia: Southern Justice on Trial, by Jane Dailey
  • Lee, Lim, and Matsukawa, eds., Re/collecting Early Asian America: Essays in Cultural History, by John Cheng
  • Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919, by Philip Mellinger
  • Lewis, Creating Christian Indians: Native Clergy in the Presbyterian Church, by Michael D. McNally
  • Majewski, Traitors and True Poles: Narrating a Polish-American Identity, 1880–1939, by Adam Walaszek
  • Marshall, “Lord, We’re Just Trying to Save Your Water”: Environmental Activism and Dissent in the Appalachian South, by Jack E. Davis
  • Martin, The Presidency and Women: Promise, Performance, and Illusion, by Betty Houchin Winfield
  • McBee, Dance Hall Days: Intimacy and Leisure among Working-Class Immigrants in the United States, by Hasia R. Diner
  • McGreevy, Catholicism and American Freedom: A History, by Charles H. Lippy
  • McKanan, Identifying the Image of God: Radical Christians and Nonviolent Power in the Antebellum United States, by Leo P. Hirrel
  • McLaren, Sexual Blackmail: A Modern History, by Stephen Robertson
  • McMillian and Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited, by Michael Kazin
  • Melosh, Strangers and Kin: The American Way of Adoption, by Rickie Solinger
  • Meltzer, A History of the Federal Reserve, vol. 1: 1913–1951, by Hugh Rockoff
  • Menchaca, Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans, by Ernesto Chávez
  • Merritt, At the Crossroads: Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700–1763, by Nancy L. Hagedorn
  • Meyers, Common Whores, Vertuous Women, and Loveing Wives: Free Will Christian Women in Colonial Maryland, by Margaret Susan Thompson
  • Miller, South by Southwest: Planter Emigration and Identity in the Slave South, by Robert E. Bonner
  • Miller, Emergency Broadcasting and 1930s American Radio, by Thomas Doherty
  • Minchin, Forging a Common Bond: Labor and Environmental Activism during the basf Lockout, by Jack E. Davis
  • Monroe, The Republican Vision of John Tyler, by Lex Renda
  • Montrie, To Save the Land and People: A History of Opposition to Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia, by Paul H. Rakes
  • Needleman, Black Freedom Fighters in Steel: The Struggle for Democratic Unionism, by Peter B. Levy
  • Nelson, Rumors of Indiscretion: The University of Missouri “Sex Questionnaire” Scandal in the Jazz Age, by Miriam Reumann
  • Neuhaus, Manly Meals and Mom’s Home Cooking: Cookbooks and Gender in Modern America, by Glenna Matthews
  • Norton, In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692, by Neal Salisbury
  • Oberg, Uncas: First of the Mohegans, by William B. Hart
  • Oren, Our Enemies and Us: America’s Rivalries and the Making of Political Science, by Terence Ball
  • Ozersky, Archie Bunker’s America: tv in an Era of Change, 1968–1978, by Michael Curtin
  • Pagan, Anne Orthwood’s Bastard: Sex and Law in Early Virginia, by John G. Kolp
  • Passet, Sex Radicals and the Quest for Women’s Equality, by John C. Spurlock
  • Perciaccante, Calling Down Fire: Charles Grandison Finney and Revivalism in Jefferson County, New York, 1800–1840, by Mark A. Noll
  • Peterson del Mar, Beaten Down: A History of Interpersonal Violence in the West, by Philip Mellinger
  • Piott, Giving Voters a Voice: The Origins of the Initiative and Referendum in America, by Worth Robert Miller
  • Pitti, The Devil in Silicon Valley: Northern California, Race, and Mexican Americans, by Martha Menchaca
  • Prados, Lost Crusader: The Secret Wars of cia Director William Colby, by Kathryn S. Olmsted
  • Rasmussen and Tilton, Old Virginia: The Pursuit of a Pastoral Ideal, by W. Fitzhugh Brundage
  • Ratner and Teeter, Fanatics and Fire-Eaters: Newspapers and the Coming of the Civil War, by Menahem Blondheim
  • Roberts, Civil War Ironclads: The U.S. Navy and Industrial Mobilization, by Benjamin Franklin Cooling
  • Roberts, A Penny for the Governor, a Dollar for Uncle Sam: Income Taxation in Washington, by W. Elliot Brownlee
  • Roberts, The Confederate Belle, by Anya Jabour
  • Romano, Race Mixing: Black-White Marriage in Postwar America, by Rachel F. Moran
  • Rothman, Notorious in the Neighborhood: Sex and Families across the Color Line in Virginia, 1787–1861, by Joan R. Gundersen
  • Sacher, A Perfect War of Politics: Parties, Politicians, and Democracy in Louisiana, 1824–1861, by Samuel C. Hyde Jr.
  • Sacks, Understanding Emerson: “The American Scholar” and His Struggle for Self-Reliance, by Russell B. Goodman
  • Schafer, Anna Madgigine Jai Kingsley: African Princess, Florida Slave, Plantation Slaveowner, by Virginia Meacham Gould
  • Schroeder, Slave to the Body: Black Bodies, White No-Bodies, and the Regulative Dualism of Body-Politics in the Old South, by Michael Sappol
  • Seelye, War Games: Richard Harding Davis and the New Imperialism, by Thomas Schoonover
  • Shammas, A History of Household Government in America, by Jane Turner Censer
  • Skocpol, Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life, by Peter Dobkin Hall
  • Sloane and Sloane, Medicine Moves to the Mall, by Nancy Tomes
  • Smith, American Empire: Roosevelt’s Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization, by Peter F. Coogan
  • Smith, God Bless America: Tin Pan Alley Goes to War, by Gregory D. Black
  • Smith, Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia, by Gaines M. Foster
  • Sorin, Irving Howe: A Life of Passionate Dissent, by Jeffrey W. Coker
  • Staley, Computers, Visualization, and History: How New Technology Will Transform Our Understanding of the Past, by David S. Trask
  • Stearns, Anxious Parents: A History of Modern Childrearing in America, by Julia Grant
  • Sterba, Good Americans: Italian and Jewish Immigrants during the First World War, by Michael M. Topp
  • Sterne, The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction, by Gregory J. Downey
  • Stokes, ed., The State of U.S. History, by Lewis Perry
  • Swann-Wright, A Way Out of No Way: Claiming Family and Freedom in the New South, by Jeffrey R. Kerr-Ritchie
  • Tallant, Evil Necessity: Slavery and Political Culture in Antebellum Kentucky, by James M. Prichard
  • Traverso, Welfare Politics in Boston, 1910–1940, by Edward D. Berkowitz
  • Tyler, Silver Fox of the Rockies: Delphus E. Carpenter and Western Water Compacts, by Daniel McCool
  • Vale, Reclaiming Public Housing: A Half Century of Struggle in Three Public Neighborhoods, by Robert B. Fairbanks
  • van Minnen and Hilton, eds., Nation on the Move: Mobility in U.S. History, by Donald H. Parkerson
  • Wallenstein, Tell the Court I Love My Wife: Race, Marriage, and Law—An American History, by Rachel F. Moran
  • Walls, Emerson’s Life in Science: The Culture of Truth, by Russell B. Goodman
  • Watson and Eksterowicz, eds., The Presidential Companion: Readings on the First Ladies, by Betty Houchin Winfield
  • Weeks, Gettysburg: Memory, Market, and an American Shrine, by Richard D. Starnes
  • Westwick, The National Labs: Science in an American System, 1947–1974, by Roger D. Launius
  • Wiebe, Who We Are: A History of Popular Nationalism, by Stuart McConnell
  • Williamson, Powhatan Lords of Life and Death: Command and Consent in Seventeenth-Century Virginia, by Douglas Deal
  • Wilson, The Rise of Judicial Management in the U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas, 1955–2000, by John Dinan
  • Wolff, Richard Caton Woodville: American Painter, Artful Dodger, by Joshua Brown
  • Woods, ed., Vietnam and the American Political Tradition: The Politics of Dissent, by Melvin Small
  • Zahniser, Then Came Disaster: France and the United States, 1918–1940, by David M. Esposito
  • Zakai, Jonathan Edwards’s Philosophy of History: The Reenchantment of the World in the Age of Enlightenment, by George M. Marsden

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • The Plymouth Colony Archive Project, by John Saillant (p. 347) Read online >
  • Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1719-1820, by Aaron Sheehan-Dean (p. 348) Read online >
  • Who Killed William Robinson? Race, Justice, and Settling the Land—A Historical Whodunit, by Stephen Robertson (p. 349) Read online >
  • The Duluth Lynchings Online Resource: Historical Documents Relating to the Tragic Events of June 15, 1920, by Scott Ellsworth (p. 349) Read online >
  • United States Senate Historical Office, by Drew E. VandeCreek (p. 350) Read online >
  • American Memory Learning Page, by Peter Seixas (p. 351) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

“Recent Scholarship” is available online, Read online >

June 2004 Cover

On the cover:

This photograph appeared in How about a Decent School for Me?, a pamphlet regarding the desegregation of public schools between 1942 and 1957. Courtesy Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Visual Materials from the naacp Records, LC-USZ62-122614. See Round Table: Brown v. Board of Education, Fifty Years After,” p. 19.

Recent Issues

Icon Downarrow Full Text

The full text of the Journal of American History (1914–current) is available online to members of the OAH and to institutions that subscribe to the print versions of the journal. Electronic access is provided by Oxford University Press.

Icon Downarrow Subscribe to the JAH

A subscription to the JAH is one of the many benefits available to members of the Organization of American Historians (oah). To join the oah and receive the JAH, complete and submit a membership application at the oah Web site.

Icon Downarrow Purchase a Single Issue

Selected current and back issues of the JAH are available both as single issues and for large quantities, at volume pricing. For more information, please visit Oxford University Press