Journal of American History


Exciting Emulation: Academies and the Transformation of the Rural North, 1780s–1820s

1822 program for an exhibition at Nichols Academy id Dudley, Massachusetts
Courtesy American Antiquarian Society.

J. M. Opal explores the emergence of “emulation” as a cultural ideal in postrevolutionary America by studying academies—secondary schools that spread across the rural North from the 1780s to the 1820s. Academies offered country youth a much higher level of education than did common schools. They also promised to “excite” students by fostering competition between them and rewarding individual accomplishments. Their new approach to motivating students aroused opposition from many parents, who were anxious that their children, once excited, might forgo family and neighborhood duties. They worried, in short, about the social effects of individualism. The conflict over academies and emulation suggests that the roots of a new American individualism lay less in economic change than in the moral and cultural transformation that followed the Revolution. (pp. 445–70) Read online >

Judicial Conservatism and Protestant Faith: The Case of Justice David J. Brewer

c. 1900 Photograph of Justice David J. Brewer

Most accounts of legal history describe progress toward an increasingly perfect separation of church and state, underestimating the persistent influence of religion on American law. Linda Przybyszewski exposes the religious roots of judicial conservatism at the turn of the twentieth century by analyzing the popular writings and speeches of Justice David J. Brewer of the U.S. Supreme Court. In the early twentieth century, Populists, Progressives, and historians blamed the Court’s opposition to government regulation on class bias or social Darwinism. Przybyszewski shows that Brewer relied on a Protestant faith that emphasized free will to counter early social scientists’ naturalistic critique of legal concepts of private property and criminal responsibility. (pp. 471–96) Read online >

Leonard Covello, the Covello Papers, and the History of Eating Habits among Italian Immigrants in New York

Italian American children celebrate their victory in a sanitation contest, 1948
Courtesy Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Drawing on documents produced and collected throughout the twentieth century by Leonard Covello, an Italian American teacher and community activist, Simone Cinotto describes the role food played in the development of Italian American ethnic identity. Cinotto uncovers three sources of conflicting narratives of ethnicity in the Covello collection—the subjectivity of its creator, the sources he collected and selected, and the words of the immigrant women and men conveyed by those sources. Many historians have seen food as an uncontested source of ethnic unity. In contrast, Cinotto argues that rituals of food production and consumption were a site of generational conflict between Italian-born parents and American-born children over the meaning of Italianness and Americanization. Class, gender, and race shaped the long negotiation that established food as an essential, seemingly consensual ethnic symbol. (pp. 497–520) Read online >

Flaunting the Freak Flag: Karr v. Schmidt and the Great Hair Debate in American High Schools, 1965–1975

Cartoon from the High School Independent Press Service

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, high schools were political and cultural battlegrounds. Gael Graham uses conflicts over boys’ long hair to trace the connections between the desire for personal autonomy and the quest for power and participation among public high school students. Centering her narrative on the legal battles between Chesley Karr, a male high school student in El Paso, Texas, and school officials in that city, Graham sheds light on the high school student rights movement and the public debate about long hair. The intensity of those conflicts highlights the need to include high school students in our understanding of the revolutions of the 1960s and 1970s. (pp. 521–43) Read online >

For suggestions on how to use Graham’s article in the United States history classroom, see our “Teaching the JAH” Web project.

Environmental Justice, Native Rights, Tourism, and Opposition to Military Control: The Case of Kaho’olawe

Island of Kaho'olawe
Courtesy Pat Badgero.

Beginning in the 1930s, the U.S. Navy used the Hawaiian island of Kaho’olawe, a site sacred to native Hawaiians, as a target range. In the 1960s, the environmental degradation of the island became an important issue for environmentalists, politicians, and native Hawaiians. Mansel G. Blackford describes how native Hawaiian activists convinced other residents to embrace plans to set the island aside for cultural renewal rather than economic development. In the struggle to restore Kaho’olawe, native Hawaiians created a distinctive trans-Pacific and postcolonial variant of the U.S. environmental justice campaign that succeeded through a spicy blend of culture, politics, and public policy—a combination of rediscovered native symbols, direct action, and astute use of the courts. (pp. 544–71) Read online >


Genres of History

Last September the JAH inaugurated “Interchange,” an annual section in which we publish an edited version of a month-long online conversation on history. For this year’s installment, we discuss “genres of history” with six participants who present the past through novels, poems, cartoons, newspaper columns, films, museum exhibitions, and Web sites. The conversation, conducted in fall 2003, ranges widely: from evidence, anachronism, imagination, and art to technology, narrative, audience, and empathy. It reminds us once again that scholarly books and articles are not the only ways to approach the past. (pp. 572–93) Read online >

Participants: Robert Begiebing, Joshua Brown, Barbara Franco, David Grubin, Ruth Rosen, and Natasha Trethewey

Book Reviews

Sept. 2004, Vol. 91 No. 2

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Anderson, Eyes off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944–1955, by Robert L. Harris Jr.
  • Ashton, Collaborators in Literary America, 1870–1920, by Michael Anesko
  • Ayers, In the Presence of Mine Enemies: War in the Heart of America, 1859–1863, by Brooks D. Simpson
  • Bass, Support Any Friend: Kennedy’s Middle East and the Making of the U.S.-Israel Alliance, by Douglas Little
  • Bednarek, with Bednarek, Dreams of Flight: General Aviation in the United States, by George E. Hopkins
  • Beran, Jefferson’s Demons: Portrait of a Restless Mind, by Andrew Burstein
  • Bercaw, Gendered Freedoms: Race, Rights, and the Politics of Household in the Delta, 1861–1875, by Susan E. O’Donovan
  • Berg, The Ticket to Freedom: Die naacp und das Wahlrecht der Afro-Amerikaner (The ticket to freedom: The naacp and the Afro-Americans’ right to vote), by Herbert Shapiro
  • Bernardin, Graulich, MacFarlane, and Tonkovich, Trading Gazes: Euro-American Women Photographers and Native North Americans, 1880–1940, by Melissa A. McEuen
  • Black, War against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race, by Barry Mehler
  • Blackwelder, Styling Jim Crow: African American Beauty Training during Segregation, by Sherrie Tucker
  • Bodnar, Blue-Collar Hollywood: Liberalism, Democracy, and Working People in American Film, by Robert Brent Toplin
  • Boosahda, Arab-American Faces and Voices: The Origins of an Immigrant Community, by Anouar Majid
  • Brown, Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization, and Black Cultural Nationalism, by Eddie S. Glaude Jr.
  • Browne, Jefferson’s Call for Nationhood: The First Inaugural Address, by Garrett Ward Sheldon
  • Bu, Making the World like Us: Education, Cultural Expansion, and the American Century, by Inderjeet Parmar
  • Calloway, One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West before Lewis and Clark, by Roger L. Nichols
  • Campbell, English Public Opinion and the American Civil War, by Eugene H. Berwanger
  • Carlyon, Dan Rice: The Most Famous Man You’ve Never Heard Of, by Steven C. Bullock
  • Carpenter, On the Farm Front: The Women’s Land Army in World War II, by Rebecca Sharpless
  • Carrese, The Cloaking of Power: Montesquieu, Blackstone, and the Rise of Judicial Activism, by Stephen B. Presser
  • Chambers, Drinking the Waters: Creating an American Leisure Class at Nineteenth-Century Mineral Springs, by Theodore Corbett
  • Cinotto, Una famiglia che mangia insieme: Cibo ed etnicità nella comunità italoamericana di New York, 1920–1940 (A family that eats together: Food and ethnicity in the Italian American community of New York, 1920–1940), by Betty Boyd Caroli
  • Clymer, America’s Culture of Terrorism: Violence, Capitalism, and the Written Word, by Robert Justin Goldstein
  • Cunningham, Reforming Women’s Fashion, 1850–1920: Politics, Health, and Art, by Nancy Page Fernandez
  • Curran, Soldiers of Peace: Civil War Pacifism and the Postwar Radical Peace Movement, by Valarie H. Ziegler
  • Cutter, Domestic Devils, Battlefield Angels: The Radicalism of American Womanhood, 1830–1865, by Laura McCall
  • D’Emilio, Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin, by V. P. Franklin
  • Davis, Challenging the Boundaries of Slavery, by Peter Kolchin
  • Denton, American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857, by Jan Shipps
  • Dobson, US Economic Statecraft for Survival, 1933–1991: Of Sanctions, Embargoes, and Economic Warfare, by Kenneth A. Rodman
  • Doherty, Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture, by Brenda Murphy
  • Dunaway, The African-American Family in Slavery and Emancipation, by Dylan C. Penningroth
  • Dunaway, Slavery in the American Mountain South, by Ronald L. Lewis
  • Eisinger, The Evolution of Presidential Polling, by George H. Skau
  • Ellis, The Moving Appeal: Mr. McClanahan, Mrs. Dill, and the Civil War’s Great Newspaper Run, by Dwight L. Teeter Jr.
  • En, Amerika to Nikka Kowa (America and the Japan-Taiwan peace treaty), by Noriko Kawamura
  • Engerman, Gilman, Haefele, and Latham, eds., Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War, by Hemant Shah
  • Farber, Lincoln’s Constitution, by Stewart Winger
  • Finnegan, Picturing Poverty: Print Culture and fsa Photographs, by F. Jack Hurley
  • Fisher, Plea Bargaining’s Triumph: A History of Plea Bargaining in America, by Allen Steinberg
  • Fogel, The Slavery Debates, 1952–1990: A Retrospective, by Peter Kolchin
  • Fornieri, Abraham Lincoln’s Political Faith, by Ronald C. White Jr.
  • Fosl, Subversive Southerner: Anne Braden and the Struggle for Racial Justice in the Cold War South, by Elna C. Green
  • Fought, Southern Womanhood and Slavery: A Biography of Louisa S. McCord, 1810–1879, by Jane H. Pease
  • Frick, Theatre, Culture, and Temperance Reform in Nineteenth-Century America, by Scott C. Martin
  • Friedman, Nazis and Good Neighbors: The United States Campaign against the Germans of Latin America in World War II, by John F. Bratzel
  • Fuller, Morality and the Mail in Nineteenth-Century America, by Leonard Sweet
  • Gallagher, ed., The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862, by Richard E. Beringer
  • Garate, Juan Bautista de Anza: Basque Explorer in the New World, by Dedra McDonald Birzer
  • Garner, Precious Fire: Maud Russell and the Chinese Revolution, by Jane H. Hunter
  • Geelhoed and Edmonds, Eisenhower, Macmillan, and Allied Unity, 1957–1961, by Ritchie Ovendale
  • George, Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans Faced the Cuban Missile Crisis, by Stephen J. Whitfield
  • Gitelman and Pingree, eds., New Media, 1740–1915, by Peter J. Wosh
  • Gordon, Dead on Arrival: The Politics of Health Care in Twentieth-Century America, by Thomas R. Oliver
  • Goss, The War within the Union High Command: Politics and Generalship during the Civil War, by Mark E. Neely Jr.
  • Graham, The Brothers’ Vietnam War: Black Power, Manhood, and the Military Experience, by Michael S. Foley
  • Grossman, Reconstituting the American Renaissance: Emerson, Whitman, and the Politics of Representation, by Mary Kupiec Cayton
  • Grounds, Tinker, and Wilkins, eds., Native Voices: American Indian Identity and Resistance, by Robert L. Bee
  • Guglielmo, White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890–1945, by Gary R. Mormino
  • Hagan, Taking Indian Lands: The Cherokee (Jerome) Commission, 1889–1893, by Brad Agnew
  • Hamilton, The Making and Unmaking of a Revolutionary Family: The Tuckers of Virginia, 1752–1830, by A. Glenn Crothers
  • Higbie, Indispensable Outcasts: Hobo Workers and Community in the American Midwest, 1880–1930, by Todd DePastino
  • High, Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America’s Rust Belt, 1969–1984, by Howard Gillette Jr.
  • Higurashi, Tokyo saiban no kokusai kankei: Kokusai seiji ni okeru kenryoku to kihan (International relations surrounding the Tokyo trials: Power and code in international politics), by Frederick R. Dickinson
  • Holifield, Theology in America: Christian Thought from the Age of the Puritans to the Civil War, by Robert E. Brown
  • Homberger, Mrs. Astor’s New York: Money and Social Power in a Gilded Age, by Mary W. Blanchard
  • Hood, The Weaver’s Craft: Cloth, Commerce, and Industry in Early Pennsylvania, by Michael V. Kennedy
  • Houck and Kiewe, fdr’s Body Politics: The Rhetoric of Disability, by Hugh E. Evans M.D.
  • Hune and Nomura, eds., Asian/Pacific Islander American Women: A Historical Anthology, by Laura Hyun Yi Kang
  • Hurt, ed., African American Life in the Rural South, 1900–1950, by Greta de Jong
  • Hutchison, Religious Pluralism in America: The Contentious History of a Founding Ideal, by Mark Hulsether
  • Hutson, Forgotten Features of the Founding: The Recovery of Religious Themes in the Early American Republic, by Frank Lambert
  • Ippolito, Why Budgets Matter: Budget Policy and American Politics, by Iwan Morgan
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin: An American Life, by Barbara B. Oberg
  • Johnson, Sam Patch, the Famous Jumper, by Steven C. Bullock
  • Johnston, The Radical Middle Class: Populist Democracy and the Question of Capitalism in Progressive Era Portland, Oregon, by John D. Buenker
  • Juster, Doomsayers: Anglo-American Prophecy in the Age of Revolution, by Dee E. Andrews
  • Kaplan and Kaplan, Between Ocean and City: The Transformation of Rockaway, New York, by Eugenie L. Birch
  • Kilgore, Astrofuturism: Science, Race, and Visions of Utopia in Space, by Howard P. Segal
  • Klotter, Kentucky Justice, Southern Honor, and American Manhood: Understanding the Life and Death of Richard Reid, by Craig Thompson Friend
  • Kraut, Goldberger’s War: The Life and Work of a Public Health Crusader, by Susan E. Lederer
  • Lamarre, The French Canadians of Michigan: Their Contribution to the Development of the Saginaw Valley and the Keweenaw Peninsula, 1840–1914, by François Weil
  • Lee, At America’s Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882–1943, by Renqiu Yu
  • Lhamon, Jump Jim Crow: Lost Plays, Lyrics, and Street Prose of the First Atlantic Popular Culture, by Rosemarie K. Bank
  • Liebovich, Richard Nixon, Watergate, and the Press: A Historical Retrospective, by Dean J. Kotlowski
  • Lombard, Making Manhood: Growing Up Male in Colonial New England, by Gloria L. Main
  • Lotchin, The Bad City in the Good War: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Oakland, and San Diego, by Charles Wollenberg
  • Lott, From Paris to Peoria: How European Piano Virtuosos Brought Classical Music to the American Heartland, by Michael Broyles
  • Lowe, Looking Good: College Women and Body Image, 1875–1930, by Lynn D. Gordon
  • Lyons, The People of This Generation: The Rise and Fall of the New Left in Philadelphia, by Jennifer Frost
  • Machado, Of Borders and Margins: Hispanic Disciples in Texas, 1888–1945, by R. Douglas Brackenridge
  • Mahan, Kennedy, de Gaulle, and Western Europe, by William I. Hitchcock
  • Mauch, trans. by Riemer, The Shadow War against Hitler: The Covert Operations of America’s Wartime Secret Intelligence Service, by Jay Lockenour
  • McAllister, White People Do Not Know How to Behave at Entertainments Designed for Ladies & Gentlemen of Colour: William Brown’s African & American Theater, by Craig Steven Wilder
  • McPherson, Reconstructing Dixie: Race, Gender, and Nostalgia in the Imagined South, by Jacqueline Glass Campbell
  • Mellis, Riding Buffaloes and Broncos: Rodeo and Native Traditions in the Northern Great Plains, by Loretta Fowler
  • Metzl, Prozac on the Couch: Prescribing Gender in the Era of Wonder Drugs, by Eugene Taylor
  • Miller, Coacoochee’s Bones: A Seminole Saga, by Jane F. Lancaster
  • Minohara, Hainichi iminho to nichibei kankei: “Hanihara shokan” no shinso to sono “Judainaru kekka” (The Japanese exclusion act and U.S.-Japanese relations: The truth behind the “Hanihara note” and its “grave consequences”), by Yasuhide Kawashima
  • Miraldi, The Pen Is Mightier: The Muckraking Life of Charles Edward Russell, by Robert C. Kochersberger
  • Moore, Serving Our Country: Japanese American Women in the Military during World War II, by Thomas Y. Fujita-Rony
  • Morone, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History, by R. Scott Appleby
  • Murray, The Progressive Housewife: Community Activism in Suburban Queens, 1945–1965, by Amy Swerdlow
  • Nelson, Women of Color and the Reproductive Rights Movement, by Amy Kesselman
  • Newman, Embodied History: The Lives of the Poor in Early Philadelphia, by Richard G. Miller
  • Noll, America’s God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln, by John Corrigan
  • Nye, America as Second Creation: Technology and Narratives of New Beginnings, by Joseph W. Slade
  • Oinas-Kukkonen, Tolerance, Suspicion, and Hostility: Changing U.S. Attitudes toward the Japanese Communist Movement, 1944–1947, by Robert D. Eldridge
  • Olson, Watergate: The Presidential Scandal That Shook America, by Dean J. Kotlowski
  • Oppenheimer, Knocking on Heaven’s Door: American Religion in the Age of Counterculture, by Robert Booth Fowler
  • Ortner, New Jersey Dreaming: Capital, Culture, and the Class of ’58, by Paul H. Mattingly
  • Paton, Abandoned New England: Landscape in the Works of Homer, Frost, Hopper, Wyeth, and Bishop, by Elizabeth Johns
  • Perras, Stepping Stones to Nowhere: The Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and American Military Strategy, 1867–1945, by Jeffrey G. Barlow
  • Pfitzer, Picturing the Past: Illustrated Histories and the American Imagination, 1840–1900, by Scott E. Casper
  • Pierson, Free Hearts and Free Homes: Gender and American Antislavery Politics, by Jacqueline Bacon
  • Price, Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Heart of a New Nation, by Helen C. Rountree
  • Ramsey, Race Music: Black Cultures from Bebop to Hip-Hop, by Nichole T. Rustin
  • Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision, by Kathryn L. Nasstrom
  • Rauchway, Murdering McKinley: The Making of Theodore Roosevelt’s America, by John Milton Cooper Jr.
  • Ritter and Medhurst, eds., Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond, by George H. Skau
  • Ryan, The Grammar of Good Intentions: Race and the Antebellum Culture of Benevolence, by Lori D. Ginzberg
  • Sampson, John L. O’Sullivan and His Times, by Tom Chaffin
  • Schorman, Selling Style: Clothing and Social Change at the Turn of the Century, by Nancy Page Fernandez
  • Schwartz, Lyndon Johnson and Europe: In the Shadow of Vietnam, by Frank Costigliola
  • Sentilles, Performing Menken: Adah Isaacs Menken and the Birth of American Celebrity, by Charles L. Ponce de Leon
  • Shackel, Memory in Black and White: Race, Commemoration, and the Post-Bellum Landscape, by Thomas Andrew Denenberg
  • Sharpe, Ghosts of Slavery: A Literary Archaeology of Black Women’s Lives, by Hilary McD. Beckles
  • Shimakawa, Amerika no Senso to Nichibei Ampo Taisei (America’s wars and the U.S.-Japan security system), by Richard H. Minear
  • Shiozaki, Amerika “Chinichiha” no Kigen (Origins of a “pro-Japanese group” in the United States), by Yoneyuki Sugita
  • Skeen, 1816: America Rising, by James E. Lewis Jr.
  • Smith, From Blackjacks to Briefcases: A History of Commercialized Strikebreaking and Unionbusting in the United States, by Stephen H. Norwood
  • Smythe, The Gilded Age Press, 1865–1900, by W. Joseph Campbell
  • Squier, ed., Communities of the Air: Radio Century, Radio Culture, by Derek Vaillant
  • Sterett, Public Pensions: Gender and Civic Service in the States, 1850–1937, by Anthony R. Travis
  • Stern, Averting ‘The Final Failure’: John F. Kennedy and the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis Meetings, by Meena Bose
  • Suri, Power and Protest: Global Revolution and the Rise of Détente, by Mary Elise Sarotte
  • Taketani, U.S. Women Writers and the Discourses of Colonialism, 1825–1861, by Jeanne Boydston
  • Tanigawa, Amerika eiga to senryo seisaku (The formulation and implementation of U.S. film policy toward occupied Japan), by Sayuri Shimizu
  • Teaford, The Rise of the States: Evolution of American State Government, by Gerald Gamm
  • Testi, La formazione degli Stati Uniti (The formation of the United States), by Martha Saxton
  • Theoharis and Woodard, eds., Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles outside the South, 1940–1980, by James R. Ralph Jr.
  • Tobin, To Conquer the Air: The Wright Brothers and the Great Race for Flight, by William F. Trimble
  • Treat, Around the Sacred Fire: Native Religious Activism in the Red Power Era, by Ward Churchill
  • Ueda and Wright, eds., Faces of Community: Immigrant Massachusetts, 1860–2000, by Frederick M. Binder
  • Van Hook, The Virgin & the Dynamo: Public Murals in American Architecture, 1893–1917, by Barbara Melosh
  • Ward, Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754–1765, by Richard Middleton
  • Williamson, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965–75, by Yohuru R. Williams
  • Willrich, City of Courts: Socializing Justice in Progressive Era Chicago, by Wayne K. Hobson
  • Winkle, The Young Eagle: The Rise of Abraham Lincoln, by Stephen L. Hansen
  • Wittner, The Struggle against the Bomb, vol. 3: Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present, by Milton S. Katz
  • Witwer, Corruption and Reform in the Teamsters Union, by Kevin Boyle
  • Woodruff, American Congo: The African American Freedom Struggle in the Delta, by John A. Kirk
  • Wright, Hamilton Unbound: Finance and the Creation of the American Republic, by Jonathan M. Chu
  • Yee, Shopping at Giant Foods: Chinese American Supermarkets in Northern California, by David K. Yoo
  • Zieger, America’s Great War: World War I and the American Experience, by Nancy Gentile Ford

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • National Archives and Records Administration Digital Classroom, by David Kobrin (p. 732) Read online >
  • Race: The Power of an Illusion, by Howard Winant (p. 733) Read online >
  • The James Fenimore Cooper Society, by Matt Cohen (p. 734) Read online >
  • The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, by Steven Stoll (p. 735) Read online >
  • Jewish Women’s Archive, by Marjorie N. Feld (p. 736) Read online >
  • Agents of Social Change Online Exhibit: New Resources on 20th-Century Women’s Activism, by Melissa Doak (p. 737) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

“Recent Scholarship” is available online, Read online >

Sept. 2004 Cover

On the cover:

In 1934, the intersection of First Avenue and 108th Street featured an open-air market where Italian immigrants bought and sold a variety of foodstuffs. This pushcart market was also a vital landmark in the social life of the neighborhood during the interwar years, helping Italian Americans create an identity that connected food with ethnicity. Courtesy Milstein Division of United States History, Local History & Genealogy, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations. See Simone Cinotto, “Leonard Covello, the Covello Papers, and the History of Eating Habits among Italian Immigrants in New York,” p. 497.

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