Journal of American History

Presidential Address

The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past

In an article based on her presidential address to the Organization of American Historians, Jacquelyn Dowd Hall explores the stories we craft and teach about the American civil rights movement. The dominant narrative, which rightly celebrates the decade between Brown v. Board of Education and the passage of the Voting Rights Act, often obscures both the movement’s rich antecedents and the nationwide struggles that continue today. The truncated narrative of a sharply delimited, victorious civil rights struggle misconstrues the movement’s radicalism and lends itself to use by the New Right to undermine the movement’s far-reaching economic and structural goals. Hall proposes the story of a “long civil rights movement,” a truer story that incorporates change and resistance across the twentieth century and speaks to the challenges of our time. (pp. 1233–63) Read online >


From Royal to Republican: The Classical Image in Early America

The Continence of Scipio. New-York Magazine, July 1793
Courtesy American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Caroline Winterer takes a fresh look at the iconography of the American revolutionary era—the age of Liberties, Minervas, and Columbias—putting such images in the context of earlier illustrations that had circulated in the colonial period. She finds that the flamboyantly baroque and aristocratic images of antiquity that bedecked colonial-era books and engravings persisted into the nineteenth century, when aristocracy and hierarchy were being repudiated on all sides. Tracing the trajectory of one particular story and its accompanying imagery over time—the now-forgotten parable of the continence of Scipio—she shows how ancient concerns about empire were reworked for use in a modern republic with new imperial pretensions of its own on the western frontier. (pp. 1264–90) Read online >

All the World’s a Stage! The Actors’ Strike of 1919

Striking chorus girls demonstrate on the streets of New York City during the 1919
Courtesy Alfred Harding, The Revolt of the Actors.

Sean P. Holmes examines a quirky and prophetic incident of post-World War I labor unrest—the 1919 actors’ strike that darkened theaters in New York. Drawing upon largely unused archival sources, Holmes illuminates early twentieth-century cultural production, the obstacles to unionization posed by performers’ aspirations to gentility and dreams of individual stardom, and the special resources that men and women of the stage could deploy against their employers. By transforming an industrial dispute into an entertainment spectacle, actors mobilized public sympathy and won the strike. Their strategy highlights the growing theatricality of worker protest in a service economy in which public performance was increasingly important to the productive process. (pp. 1291–1317) Read online >

Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence

September 1954 cartoon from the pacifist journal Fellowship
Courtesy Fellowship and Yale University Library.

Joseph Kip Kosek recovers the career of Richard Bartlett Gregg, America’s first major theorist of militant nonviolence. In the early 1920s, frustrated by his work with organized labor, Gregg traveled to India to learn from Mohandas Gandhi and the Indian independence movement. He concluded that nonviolence, historically an inner religious conviction, could achieve social change as a modern, media-savvy form of political performance. Radical pacifists expanded upon and experimented with Gregg’s theories, and Martin Luther King Jr. later used his ideas in the Montgomery bus boycott. Gregg’s remarkable story brings together the disparate histories of civil rights, labor, pacifism, religion, the mass media, and, above all, the violence that defined twentieth-century politics in America and around the world. (pp. 1318–48) Read online >

“I Don’t Trust You Anymore”: Nina Simone, Culture, and Black Activism in the 1960s

Promotional photograph of Nina Simone, 1961
Courtesy The New York Public Library

In the early 1960s, often considered the heyday of liberal interracial activism, the singer and songwriter Nina Simone forged a version of black cultural nationalism that emphasized female power. Internationally famous and known primarily for her incendiary song “Mississippi Goddam” (1963), Simone showed how cultural production mattered to black activism. She actively participated in the black freedom struggle with her music, lyrics, performance strategies, and self‑representation. Ruth Feldstein shows how Simone drew on emerging concepts of feminism to create a gendered strategy of racial protest and how she disseminated a vision of black freedom and culture around the world. Feldstein offers a new way to think about the relationships of African American political activism, culture, and gender in the early 1960s. (pp. 1349–79) Read online >

Textbooks & Teaching

  • “Editors’ Introduction: ‘The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth’: Writing, Producing, and Using College-Level American History Textbooks,” by Gary J. Kornblith and Carol Lasser (pp. 1380–82) Read online >
  • “Reflections of a Longtime Textbook Author; or, History Revised, Revised—and Revised Again,” by Mary Beth Norton (pp. 1380–90) Read online >
  • “The Challenges and Rewards of Textbook Writing: An Interview with Alan Brinkley” (pp. 1391–97) Read online >
  • “Textbook Publishing: An Ecological View,” by Steve Forman (1398–1404) Read online >
  • “By the Book: Assessing the Place of Textbooks in U.S. Survey Courses,” by Daniel J. Cohen (pp. 1405–15) Read online >

Book Reviews

March 2005, Vol. 91 No. 4

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Abbott, ed. by Quist, For Free Press and Equal Rights: Republican Newspapers in the Reconstruction South, by Carl R. Osthaus
  • Allitt, Religion in America since 1945: A History, by Eugene McCarraher
  • Augst, The Clerk’s Tale: Young Men and Moral Life in Nineteenth-Century America, by Timothy B. Spears
  • Barnard, American Vanguard: The United Auto Workers during the Reuther Years, 1935–1970, by Stephen Amberg
  • Bernstein, Thomas Jefferson, by Lance Banning
  • Black, Russians in Alaska, 1732–1867, by Melody Webb
  • Boyd, Wrestling with the Muse: Dudley Randall and the Broadside Press, by James Edward Smethurst
  • Bradley, Mass Media and the Shaping of American Feminism, 1963–1975, by Susan M. Hartmann
  • Breen, The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence, by David Waldstreicher
  • Brown, The Education of Jane Addams, by Linda Schott
  • Brown, The Word in the World: Evangelical Writing, Publishing, and Reading in America, 1789–1880, by Richard D. Brown
  • Brundage, ed., Booker T. Washington and Black Progress: Up from Slavery 100 Years Later, by Cary D. Wintz
  • Burns and Dunn, George Washington, by Paul K. Longmore
  • Calloway and Salisbury, eds., Reinterpreting New England Indians and the Colonial Experience, by Jack Campisi
  • Cannistraro and Meyer, eds., The Lost World of Italian American Radicalism: Politics, Labor, and Culture, by Stefano Luconi
  • Carp, Adoption Politics: Bastard Nation and Ballot Initiative 58, by Sandra Patton-Imani
  • Carwardine, Lincoln, by Rodney O. Davis
  • Censer, The Reconstruction of White Southern Womanhood, 1865–1895, by Peter W. Bardaglio
  • Chappell, A Stone of Hope: Prophetic Religion and the Death of Jim Crow, by Lewis V. Baldwin
  • Clayton and Salmond, eds., “Lives Full of Struggle and Triumph”: Southern Women, Their Institutions, and Their Communities, by Angela Boswell
  • Clegg, The Price of Liberty: African Americans and the Making of Liberia, by Amos J. Beyan
  • Cobble, The Other Women’s Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America, by Susan Eleanor Hirsch
  • Cole and Parker, eds., Beyond Black & White: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the U.S. South and Southwest, by Carlos Kevin Blanton
  • Connolly, Capitalism, Politics, and Railroads in Jacksonian New England, by Christopher Clark
  • Daniels, Guarding the Golden Door: American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since 1882, by K. Scott Wong
  • Davis, Waterfront Revolts: New York and London Dockworkers, 1946–61, by Pablo A. Pozzi
  • Dessens, Myths of the Plantation Society: Slavery in the American South and the West Indies, by B. W. Higman
  • Donohue, Freedom from Want: American Liberalism and the Idea of the Consumer, by Alan Lawson
  • Dorr, White Women, Rape, and the Power of Race in Virginia, 1900–1960, by Matthew Pratt Guterl
  • Edling, A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U.S. Constitution and the Making of the American State, by Michael P. Zuckert
  • Edsall, Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World, by David K. Johnson
  • Ellis, A Dancing People: Powwow Culture on the Southern Plains, by Peter Iverson
  • Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of Russian Development, by Alan Wald
  • Etcheson, Bleeding Kansas: Contested Liberty in the Civil War Era, by Michael J. Birkner
  • Ethridge, Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, by Mary E. Young
  • Faulkner, Women’s Radical Reconstruction: The Freedmen’s Aid Movement, by Christine Bolt
  • Fish, Black and White Women’s Travel Narratives: Antebellum Explorations, by Etsuko Taketani
  • Flake, The Politics of American Religious Identity: The Seating of Senator Reed Smoot, Mormon Apostle, by John L. Brooke
  • Foote, Seeking the One Great Remedy: Francis George Shaw and Nineteenth-Century Reform, by Thomas J. Brown
  • Fouché, Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation: Granville T. Woods, Lewis H. Latimer, & Shelby J. Davidson, by W. Sherman Jackson
  • French, The Rebellious Slave: Nat Turner in American Memory, by Mary Kemp Davis
  • Gardner, Blood & Irony: Southern White Women’s Narratives of the Civil War, 1861–1937, by Karen L. Cox
  • Gavin, Gold, Dollars, and Power: The Politics of International Monetary Relations, 1958–1971, by Alfred E. Eckes
  • Gedge, Without Benefit of Clergy: Women and the Pastoral Relationship in Nineteenth-Century American Culture, by Debby Applegate
  • Gilje, Liberty on the Waterfront: American Maritime Culture in the Age of Revolution, by B. R. Burg
  • Gilman, Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America, by Nick Cullather
  • Gold, Making the Bible Modern: Children’s Bibles and Jewish Education in Twentieth-Century America, by Beth S. Wenger
  • Goldstein, William Sloane Coffin Jr.: A Holy Impatience, by Gary Dorrien
  • Greene, Washita: The U.S. Army and the Southern Cheyennes, 1867–1869, by John H. Monnett
  • Griffler, Front Line of Freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley, by Catherine Clinton
  • Grosfoguel, Colonial Subjects: Puerto Ricans in a Global Perspective, by Laura Briggs
  • Guelzo, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America, by Kirt H. Wilson
  • Gunnell, Imagining the American Polity: Political Science and the Discourse of Democracy, by Philip Abbott
  • Gutfreund, Twentieth-Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of the American Landscape, by Mark S. Foster
  • Hahn, Caught in the Middle East: U.S. Policy toward the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1945–1961, by Steven Z. Freiberger
  • Harkins, Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon, by Ronald D. Eller
  • Harris, Lincoln’s Last Months, by Herman Belz
  • Harrold, The Rise of Aggressive Abolitionism: Addresses to the Slaves, by Hugh Davis
  • Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century, by Larry Gragg
  • Hayden, Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820–2000, by Jon C. Teaford
  • Heneghan, Whitewashing America: Material Culture and Race in the Antebellum Imagination, by Neil Kamil
  • Hill, The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement, by William L. Van Deburg
  • Holzer, Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President, by Richard J. Carwardine
  • Howe, Language and Political Meaning in Revolutionary America, by Peter Onuf
  • Huelfer, The “Casualty Issue” in American Military Practice: The Impact of World War I, by Peter S. Kindsvatter
  • Hunter, How Young Ladies Became Girls: The Victorian Origins of American Girlhood, by Carol Lasser
  • Jacobs, Novak, and Zelizer, eds., The Democratic Experiment: New Directions in American Political History, by Ronald P. Formisano
  • Jakle and Sculle, Signs in America’s Auto Age: Signatures of Landscape and Place, by Karal Ann Marling
  • Jarvis, The Male Body at War: American Masculinity during World War II, by Robert Dean
  • Johnson, Warriors into Workers: The Civil War and the Formation of Urban-Industrial Society in a Northern City, by J. Matthew Gallman
  • Johnson, Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans, by Cynthia E. Orozco
  • Johnson, The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government, by Leila J. Rupp
  • Johnston, Cherokee Women in Crisis: Trail of Tears, Civil War, and Allotment, 1838–1907, by James Taylor Carson
  • Johnston, ed., The Politics of Healing: Histories of Alternative Medicine in Twentieth-Century North America, by Robert C. Fuller
  • Jordan, ed., Slavery and the American South, by Timothy J. Lockley
  • Kessner, Capital City: New York City and the Men behind America’s Rise to Economic Dominance, 1860–1900, by Walter A. Friedman
  • Kling and Sweeney, eds., Jonathan Edwards at Home and Abroad: Historical Memories, Cultural Movements, Global Horizons, by William Breitenbach
  • Knouff, The Soldiers’ Revolution: Pennsylvanians in Arms and the Forging of Early American Identity, by John Resch
  • Konkle, Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827–1863, by Hilary E. Wyss
  • Kraig, Woodrow Wilson and the Lost World of the Oratorical Statesman, by Kendrick A. Clements
  • Kuyk, African Voices in the African American Heritage, by James L. Conyers Jr.
  • La Vere, The Texas Indians, by Andrew R. Graybill
  • Lakwete, Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America, by Joseph P. Reidy
  • Lamphier, Kate Chase and William Sprague: Politics and Gender in a Civil War Marriage, by Norma Basch
  • Langa, Radical Art: Printmaking and the Left in 1930s New York, by Paul Buhle
  • Lash, A Politician Turned General: The Civil War Career of Stephen Augustus Hurlbut, by Steven E. Woodworth
  • Long, Rehabilitating Bodies: Health, History, and the American Civil War, by Susan Wells
  • Long, The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865–1920, by Joshua D. Rothman
  • Lykins, From Total War to Total Diplomacy: The Advertising Council and the Construction of the Cold War Consensus, by Shawn J. Parry-Giles
  • Mahoney, Catholic Higher Education in Protestant America: The Jesuits and Harvard in the Age of the University, by Roger L. Geiger
  • Martin, Divided Mastery: Slave Hiring in the American South, by Robert H. Gudmestad
  • Mathes and Lowitt, The Standing Bear Controversy: Prelude to Indian Reform, by John M. Coward
  • McArthur and Smith, Minnie Fisher Cunningham: A Suffragist’s Life in Politics, by Megan Seaholm
  • McGuire, To Form a More Perfect Union: A New Economic Interpretation of the United States Constitution, by Robert E. Wright
  • McMahon, Reconsidering Roosevelt on Race: How the Presidency Paved the Road to Brown, by Kenneth O’Reilly
  • Mead, How the Vote Was Won: Woman Suffrage in the Western United States, 1868–1914, by Ann D. Gordon
  • Mendel, “A Broad and Ennobling Spirit”: Workers and Their Unions in Late Gilded Age New York and Brooklyn, 1886–1898, by Brian Greenberg
  • Mohl, with Graff and Zoloth, South of the South: Jewish Activists and the Civil Rights Movement in Miami, 1945–1960, by Debra L. Schultz
  • Moore, Sinisi, and White, eds., Warm Ashes: Issues in Southern History at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century, by John B. Boles
  • Morgan, Rethinking Social Realism: African American Art and Literature, 1930–1953, by David Krasner
  • Mouw and Noll, eds., Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology, by Candy Gunther Brown
  • Nate, Amerikanische Träume: Die Kultur der Vereinigten Staaten in der Zeit des New Deal (American dreams: The culture of the United States in the time of the New Deal), by Silvano A. Wueschner
  • Newfield, Ivy and Industry: Business and the Making of the American University, 1880–1980, by John R. Thelin
  • Ngai, Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America, by Charlotte Brooks
  • Nickles, Under the Wire: How the Telegraph Changed Diplomacy, by Walter LaFeber
  • Nielsen, The Radical Lives of Helen Keller, by Catherine J. Kudlick
  • Odo, No Sword to Bury: Japanese Americans in Hawai‘i during World War II, by Eileen H. Tamura
  • Ojserkis, Beginnings of the Cold War Arms Race: The Truman Administration and the U.S. Arms Build-Up, by Wesley T. Wooley
  • Olson, Stuart Symington: A Life, by John Bledsoe Bonds
  • Ousterhout, The Most Learned Woman in America: A Life of Elizabeth Graeme Fergusson, by Susan E. Klepp
  • Parker, Uncle Sam in Barbary: A Diplomatic History, by C. Edward Skeen
  • Penningroth, The Claims of Kinfolk: African American Property and Community in the Nineteenth-Century South, by J. William Harris
  • Peskin, Manufacturing Revolution: The Intellectual Origins of Early American Industry, by David Jaffee
  • Peskin, Winfield Scott and the Profession of Arms, by James M. McCaffrey
  • Pinsker, Lincoln’s Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers’ Home, by Herman Belz
  • Polishuk, Sticking to the Union: An Oral History of the Life and Times of Julia Ruuttila, by Dennis A. Deslippe
  • Poole, Never Surrender: Confederate Memory and Conservatism in the South Carolina Upcountry, by Charles J. Holden
  • Quigley, Second Founding: New York City, Reconstruction, and the Making of American Democracy, by Ena L. Farley
  • Radano, Lying Up a Nation: Race and Black Music, by Eric Porter
  • Rath, How Early America Sounded, by Alan H. Levy
  • Reid, Controlling the Law: Legal Politics in Early National New Hampshire, by M. N. S. Sellers
  • Richardson, Possessions: The History and Uses of Haunting in the Hudson Valley, by Russ Castronovo
  • Rosenberg, A Date Which Will Live: Pearl Harbor in American Memory, by Naoko Shibusawa
  • Rossignol, trans. by Parrott, The Nationalist Ferment: The Origins of U.S. Foreign Policy, 1789–1812, by J. C. A. Stagg
  • Rothman, The New Urban Park: Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Civic Environmentalism, by Carl Abbott
  • Samet, Willing Obedience: Citizens, Soldiers, and the Progress of Consent in America, 1776–1898, by Holly A. Mayer
  • Sandbrook, Eugene McCarthy: The Rise and Fall of Postwar American Liberalism, by David Steigerwald
  • Sarna, American Judaism: A History, by Henry L. Feingold
  • Sawaya, Modern Women, Modern Work: Domesticity, Professionalism, and American Writing, 1890–1950, by Susan Albertine
  • Schneiders, Big Sky Rivers: The Yellowstone & Upper Missouri, by Byron E. Pearson
  • Schwartzberg, Democracy and U.S. Policy in Latin America during the Truman Years, by Paul J. Dosal
  • Sehlinger, Kentucky’s Last Cavalier: General William Preston, 1816–1887, by Lowell H. Harrison
  • Shankman, Crucible of American Democracy: The Struggle to Fuse Egalitarianism & Capitalism in Jeffersonian Pennsylvania, by Seth Cotlar
  • Sinisi, Sacred Debts: State Civil War Claims and American Federalism, 1861–1880, by David Brian Robertson
  • Small, Beauty & Convenience: Architecture and Order in the New Republic, by Lee Baldwin Dalzell
  • Smith, ed., Down and Out in Early America, by Robert E. Cray Jr.
  • Starr, The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications, by John Nerone
  • Sterne, Ballots & Bibles: Ethnic Politics and the Catholic Church in Providence, by James Connolly
  • Stiles, Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War, by Michael Fellman
  • Sundiata, Brothers and Strangers: Black Zion, Black Slavery, 1914–1940, by Claude A. Clegg III
  • Sutton, Communal Utopias and the American Experience: Religious Communities, 1732–2000, by Carl J. Guarneri
  • Sutton, Communal Utopias and the American Experience: Secular Communities, 1824–2000, by Carl J. Guarneri
  • Tarr, ed., Devastation and Renewal: An Environmental History of Pittsburgh and Its Region, by John T. Cumbler
  • Tebeau, Eating Smoke: Fire in Urban America, 1800–1950, by Amy S. Greenberg
  • Testi, Stelle e strisce: Storia di una bandiera (Stars and stripes: A history of a flag), by David G. Orr
  • Trees, The Founding Fathers and the Politics of Character, by Stuart Leibiger
  • Tyack, Seeking Common Ground: Public Schools in a Diverse Society, by Barry M. Franklin
  • Wachtel, Street of Dreams—Boulevard of Broken Hearts: Wall Street’s First Century, by Howard Bodenhorn
  • Ward and Rogers, Alabama’s Response to the Penitentiary Movement, 1829–1865, by Anne M. Butler
  • West, Chains of Love: Slave Couples in Antebellum South Carolina, by Cheryll Ann Cody
  • White, Roosevelt the Reformer: Theodore Roosevelt as Civil Service Commissioner, 1889–1895, by Kathleen Dalton
  • Wiese, Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century, by Nicholas Dagen Bloom
  • Yaqub, Containing Arab Nationalism: The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East, by Steven Z. Freiberger
  • Young, Building San Francisco’s Parks, 1850–1930, by Carl Abbott
  • Zakim, Ready-Made Democracy: A History of Men’s Dress in the American Republic, 1760–1860, by Thomas Augst
  • Zeidel, Immigrants, Progressives, and Exclusion Politics: The Dillingham Commission, 1900–1927, by William H. Katerberg

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • Trails to Utah and the Pacific: Diaries and Letters, 1846–1869; and Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Letters, 1846–1869, by Fritz Umbach (p. 1555) Read online >
  • Territorial Kansas Online, 1854–1861, by Michael D. Pierson (p. 1556) Read online >
  • Touring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880–1920, by Marguerite S. Shaffer (p. 1557) Read online >
  • The Living Room Candidate: Presidential Campaign Commercials, 1952–2004, by Gil Troy (p. 1558) Read online >
  • The Vietnam Project, by Meredith H. Lair (p. 1559) Read online >
  • Studs Terkel: Conversations with America, by Clifford M. Kuhn (p. 1560) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

“Recent Scholarship” is available online, Read online >

Contents of Volume 91

Index to Volume 91

thumbnail of cover

On the cover:

Nina Simone takes a bow before her audience during a concert at Carnegie Hall in 1965. Courtesy Photographs and Prints Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations. See Ruth Feldstein, “‘I Don’t Trust You Anymore’: Nina Simone, Culture, and Black Activism in the 1960s,” p. 1349.

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