Journal of American History

Round Table

A Critical Moment: World War II and Its Aftermath at Home


Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas

A 1942 sign outside the Tarrant County Court House, Fort Worth, Texas, shows 
that Mexican Americans were outsiders to the privileges of whiteness.
Courtesy National Archives.

In 1943 the Texas legislature unanimously passed a wartime resolution guaranteeing “Caucasians” equal access to public accommodations. Since the state of Texas had, at various points, officially accepted people of Latin American descent as Caucasian, the resolution was aimed at them. Drawing on little-used State Department records, Thomas A. Guglielmo shows that the 1943 resolution and similar bills that failed to pass the legislature throughout the 1940s were important parts of a transnational civil rights struggle that included activists, organizations, and government officials on both sides of the U.S.–Mexico border. Guglielmo probes the reasons for—and the costs of—that struggle’s commitment to Caucasian rights for some rather than equal rights for all. (pp. 1212–38) Read online >

“The Hitlerian Rule of Quotas”: Racial Conservatism and the Politics of Fair Employment Legislation in New York State, 1941–1945

The denunciation of racial “quotas” began decades before the late-1960s backlash against affirmative action and civil rights. This resistance first emerged during World War II when New York State contemplated the passage of a “fair employment practices” law to outlaw discrimination in employment. Anthony S. Chen explores the vigorous but unsuccessful opposition to the Ives-Quinn bill mounted by business groups, rural and suburban whites, and conservative Republicans. Opponents decried the law as imposing racial quotas and betraying American beliefs in equality. The opposition to Ives-Quinn provides a new perspective on the fall of the New Deal order and the rise of the New Right. (pp. 1238–64) Read online >

Nightmares on Elm Street: Demobilizing in Chicago, 1945–1953

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society.

Examining how ordinary people made the shift from wartime to postwar life in Chicago, Laura McEnaney offers a way to broaden and extend the narratives we teach about World War II. Her study of demobilization takes readers inside the city’s apartment housing, drawing on captivating testimony from landlords and tenants as they fought one another over the meanings and spoils of the war. These stories of demobilization’s daily grind reveal a more complex history of the so-called greatest generation and point to the need to understand how people experience the transition from war to peace. The struggles in Chicago over the conduct and power of the postwar state illuminate what people thought they had been fighting for during the war. (pp. 1265–91) Read online >

The Crucial Decade: The 1940s and Beyond

The events of the 1940s produced sweeping changes in every aspect of American life. One of the principal changes was the dramatic growth of government involvement in the economic and social life of the country caused by World War II. Considering the efforts of ordinary people in Texas, New York, and Illinois to turn the power of the government to their own advantage, the three articles in our round table, “A Critical Moment: World War II and Its Aftermath at Home,” provide local histories set in an era of global war. In his commentary, Gary Gerstle places these articles in the evolving historiography on the establishment of the modern liberal order. (pp. 1292–99) Read online >


“They Are Ancestral Homelands”: Race, Place, and Politics in Cold War Native America, 1945–1961

The cousins Pfc. Preston Toledo (on the left) and Pfc. Frank Toledo (both Navajo) use the Navajo language to relay orders over a field radio during a World War II Marine Corps artillery operation in the South Pacific.
Courtesy National Archives.

Recent scholarship on the intersection of race and the Cold War has neglected Native Americans’ experiences. Situating Native Americans’ postwar campaigns for civil rights in an international context, Paul C. Rosier examines how Native Americans drew on the moral dimensions of Cold War ideology to resist federal antisovereignty policies and appealed to American foreign aid programs such as the Marshall Plan and Point Four as models for refashioning federal Indian policy at home. Focusing on Native Americans’ hybrid patriotism, Rosier considers how they made the Cold War relevant to their lives and incorporated international circumstances into their national and ethnic identities. (pp. 1300–27) Read online >

Enslaved Swimmers and Divers in the Atlantic World

D. O. Dapper described seventeenth-century Africans diving for gold nuggets that accumulated on riverbeds at the foot of waterfalls.
Courtesy Brown University.

In the essay that won the 2005 Louis Pelzer Award, Kevin Dawson analyzes how the swimming and diving skills West African slaves carried to the Americas shaped their work and recreation. Since enslaved divers harvested pearls, salvaged sunken goods, and cleared fisheries of debris that might entangle nets, they often received privileges that field slaves were denied. Since many plantations were located near waterways to facilitate trade and communication, many slaves swam to relax, to bathe, and even to participate in swimming competitions. These experiences reveal the vibrancy of slaves’ African-influenced culture and show how slaveholders frequently valued slaves’ skills and knowledge. (pp. 1327–55) Read online >

Textbooks & Teaching

Image courtesy Smithsonian American Art Museum
Courtesy Smithsonian American Art Museum.

The full text of "Textbooks & Teaching" is also freely available here.

  • “Beyond Best Practices: Taking Seriously the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,” by Gary J. Kornblith and Carol Lasser (pp. 1356–57) Read online >>
  • “Uncoverage: Toward a Signature Pedagogy for the History Survey,” by Lendol Calder (pp. 1358–71) Read online >
  • “Ways of Seeing: Evidence and Learning in the History Classroom,” by Michael Coventry, Peter Felten, David Jaffee, Cecilia O’Leary, and Tracey Weis, with Susannah McGowan (pp. 1371–402) Read online >

Book Reviews

March 2006, Vol. 92 No. 4

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Alterman, When Presidents Lie: A History of Official Deception and Its Consequences, by Louis W. Liebovich
  • Anderson and Cayton, The Dominion of War: Empire and Liberty in North America, 1500–2000, by Serge Ricard
  • Anderson, Biblical Interpretation and Middle East Policy: The Promised Land, America, and Israel, 1917–2002, by Herbert Druks
  • Appelbaum and Sweet, eds., Envisioning an English Empire: Jamestown and the Making of the North Atlantic World, by Albert H. Tillson Jr.
  • Austin, From Concentration Camp to Campus: Japanese American Students and World War II, by Lauren Kessler
  • Barnhart, Ephraim George Squier and the Development of American Anthropology, by Curtis M. Hinsley Jr.
  • Batinski, Pastkeepers in a Small Place: Five Centuries in Deerfield, Massachusetts, by Briann G. Greenfield
  • Bell, The Liberal State on Trial: The Cold War and American Politics in the Truman Years, by Alonzo L. Hamby
  • Bender, Evolution and “the Sex Problem”: American Narratives during the Eclipse of Darwinism, by David Depew
  • Berg and Gassert, eds., Deutschland und die usa in der Internationalen Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts: Festschrift für Detlef Junker (Germany and the usa in 20th-century international history: Festschrift for Detlef Junker), by Geoff Eley
  • Birdwell and Dickinson, eds., Rural Life and Culture in the Upper Cumberland, by Dwight B. Billings
  • Bloch and Umansky, eds., Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s, by Mary Ann Wynkoop
  • Blue, No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics, by James L. Huston
  • Blumrosen and Blumrosen, Slave Nation: How Slavery United the Colonies & Sparked the American Revolution, by Daniel C. Littlefield
  • Brown, A Sense of Things: The Object Matter of American Literature, by Kirk Curnutt
  • Brown, Retreat from Gettysburg: Lee, Logistics, and the Pennsylvania Campaign, by Earl J. Hess
  • Brown, Toussaint’s Clause: The Founding Fathers and the Haitian Revolution, by Alan L. Karras
  • Bucheli, Bananas and Business: The United Fruit Company in Colombia, 1899–2000, by Jane M. Rausch
  • Burnard, Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire: Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the Anglo-Jamaican World, by Linda L. Sturtz
  • Chambers, Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia, by Phillip Hamilton
  • Cohen, British Supporters of the American Revolution, 1775–1783: The Role of the “Middling-Level” Activists, by John Sainsbury
  • Coski, The Confederate Battle Flag: America’s Most Embattled Emblem, by James C. Cobb
  • Creighton, The Colors of Courage: Gettysburg’s Forgotten History: Immigrants, Women, and African Americans in the Civil War’s Defining Battle, by Ervin L. Jordan Jr.
  • Dawson, Laboring to Play: Home Entertainment and the Spectacle of Middle-Class Cultural Life, 1850–1920, by Cindy S. Aron
  • de Grazia, Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance through Twentieth-Century Europe, by Christopher Endy
  • DePalma, Dialogue on the Frontier: Catholic and Protestant Relations, 1793–1883, by Amy DeRogatis
  • Derickson, Health Security for All: Dreams of Universal Health Care in America, by Theodore R. Marmor
  • Eperjesi, The Imperialist Imaginary: Visions of Asia and the Pacific in American Culture, by Jon Davidann
  • Estes, I Am a Man! Race, Manhood, and the Civil Rights Movement, by Herman Graham III
  • Feldman, The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, by Kent Redding
  • Fischer, Liberty and Freedom, by Lester C. Olson
  • Flamming, Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America, by Eric Avila
  • Fradkin, The Great Earthquake and Firestorms of 1906: How San Francisco Nearly Destroyed Itself, by Robert W. Cherny
  • Friend, Along the Maysville Road: The Early American Republic in the Trans-Appalachian West, by Jeffrey P. Brown
  • Gardner and Gittinger, eds., The Search for Peace in Vietnam, 1964–1968, by Robert Buzzanco
  • Gardner, The Case That Never Dies: The Lindbergh Kidnapping, by Lee Bernstein
  • Ginzberg, Untidy Origins: A Story of Woman’s Rights in Antebellum New York, by Ellen C. DuBois
  • Glantz, fdr and the Soviet Union: The President’s Battles over Foreign Policy, by Peter G. Boyle
  • Goldschmidt and McAlister, eds., Race, Nation, and Religion in the Americas, by Robert H. Craig
  • Gomery, The Coming of Sound: A History, by George Potamianos
  • Gottlieb, Vallianatos, Freer, and Dreier, The Next Los Angeles: The Struggle for a Livable City, by Philip J. Ethington
  • Gould and Onuf, eds., Empire and Nation: The American Revolution in the Atlantic World, by Colin Bonwick
  • Graubard, Command of Office: How War, Secrecy, and Deception Transformed the Presidency from Theodore Roosevelt to George W. Bush, by John Robert Greene
  • Grusin, Culture, Technology, and the Creation of America’s National Parks, by Anne F. Hyde
  • Hall, Peace and Freedom: The Civil Rights and Antiwar Movements in the 1960s, by Melvin Small
  • Harvey, Freedom’s Coming: Religious Culture and the Shaping of the South from the Civil War through the Civil Rights Era, by Anthony B. Pinn
  • Hempton, Methodism: Empire of the Spirit, by E. Brooks Holifield
  • Horne, Black and Brown: African Americans and the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1920, by James N. Leiker
  • Jacobs, New Netherland: A Dutch Colony in Seventeenth-Century America, by Donna Merwick
  • Jacobs, Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America, by Liette Gidlow
  • Jacobs, America’s Miracle Man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem, Religion, Race, and U.S. Intervention in Southeast Asia, 1950–1957, by Mark Atwood Lawrence
  • Jacobson, Raising Consumers: Children and the American Mass Market in the Early Twentieth Century, by Paula Petrik
  • Jones, The Tribe of Black Ulysses: African American Lumber Workers in the Jim Crow South, by Ronald L. Lewis
  • Justice, The War That Wasn’t: Religious Conflict and Compromise in the Common Schools of New York State, 1865–1900, by James C. Carper
  • Kamil, Fortress of the Soul: Violence, Metaphysics, and Material Life in the Huguenots’ New World, 1517–1751, by Carla Gardina Pestana
  • Kaplowitz, lulac, Mexican Americans, and National Policy, by Zaragosa Vargas
  • Kay, Dying to Be Beautiful: The Fight for Safe Cosmetics, by Jennifer Scanlon
  • Kelly, The Shamrock and the Lily: The New York Irish and the Creation of a Transatlantic Identity, 1845–1921, by Janet Nolan
  • Kenney, Jazz on the River, by Kathy Ogren
  • Kidd, The Protestant Interest: New England after Puritanism, by Robert M. Bliss
  • King, The Liberty of Strangers: Making the American Nation, by David M. Reimers
  • Kramer, The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review, by Scott D. Gerber
  • Kusch, Battleground Chicago: The Police and the 1968 Democratic National Convention, by David Farber
  • Lambert, James Habersham: Loyalty, Politics, and Commerce in Colonial Georgia, by Lee Ann Caldwell
  • Lau, ed., From the Grassroots to the Supreme Court: Brown v. Board of Education and American Democracy, by Robert J. Cottrol
  • Lazo, Writing to Cuba: Filibustering and Cuban Exiles in the United States, by Robert E. May
  • Levin, Defining Women’s Scientific Enterprise: Mount Holyoke Faculty and the Rise of American Science, by Sally Gregory Kohlstedt
  • Linebaugh, The Man Who Found Thoreau: Roland W. Robbins and the Rise of Historical Archaeology in America, by Charles E. Orser Jr.
  • Looker, “Point from which Creation Begins”: The Black Artists’ Group of St. Louis, by Julius E. Thompson
  • Lovell, Art in a Season of Revolution: Painters, Artisans, and Patrons in Early America, by Brandon Brame Fortune
  • Loving, The Last Titan: A Life of Theodore Dreiser, by Kathleen Drowne
  • Lubin, Romance and Rights: The Politics of Interracial Intimacy, 1945–1954, by Lisa Lindquist Dorr
  • Lui, The Chinatown Trunk Mystery: Murder, Miscegenation, and Other Dangerous Encounters in Turn-of-the-Century New York City, by Renqiu Yu
  • Mackey, Pursuing Johns: Criminal Law Reform, Defending Character, and New York City’s Committee of Fourteen, 1920–1930, by Peter C. Baldwin
  • Mancke, The Fault Lines of Empire: Political Differentiation in Massachusetts and Nova Scotia, ca. 1760–1830, by Marc Egnal
  • Mapes, A Public Charity: Religion and Social Welfare in Indianapolis, 1929–2002, by Michael Reisch
  • Maroukis, Peyote and the Yankton Sioux: The Life and Times of Sam Necklace, by Joel W. Martin
  • Martin, No Coward Soldiers: Black Cultural Politics and Postwar America, by Douglas Henry Daniels
  • Merli, ed. by Fahey, The Alabama, British Neutrality, and the American Civil War, by Duncan Andrew Campbell
  • Messer-Kruse, Banksters, Bosses, and Smart Money: A Social History of the Great Toledo Bank Crash of 1931, by Steven Horwitz
  • Michel, Struggle for a Better South: The Southern Student Organizing Committee, 1964–1969, by Michelle Brattain
  • Mieczkowski, Gerald Ford and the Challenges of the 1970s, by Nigel Bowles
  • Missall and Missall, The Seminole Wars: America’s Longest Indian Conflict, by Claudio Saunt
  • Mitchell, Righteous Propagation: African Americans and the Politics of Racial Destiny after Reconstruction, by Victoria W. Wolcott
  • Mitchell, Coyote Nation: Sexuality, Race, and Conquest in Modernizing New Mexico, 1880–1920, by Arnoldo De León
  • Mittelstadt, From Welfare to Workfare: The Unintended Consequences of Liberal Reform, 1945–1965, by Felicia Ann Kornbluh
  • Mixon, The Atlanta Riot: Race, Class, and Violence in a New South City, by Stephen G. N. Tuck
  • Moon, Yellowface: Creating the Chinese in American Popular Music and Performance, 1850s–1920s, by Anthony W. Lee
  • Moser, Right Turn: John T. Flynn and the Transformation of American Liberalism, by Jennifer Delton
  • Nelson, Trembling Earth: A Cultural History of the Okefenokee Swamp, by Christopher F. Meindl
  • Nordin and Scott, From Prairie Farmer to Entrepreneur: The Transformation of Midwestern Agriculture, by Michael Johnston Grant
  • Nudelman, John Brown’s Body: Slavery, Violence, & the Culture of War, by Jane E. Schultz
  • O’Toole, When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt after the White House, by John Milton Cooper Jr.
  • Oppenheim, Reverence for the Relations of Life: Re-imagining Pragmatism via Josiah Royce’s Interactions with Peirce, James, and Dewey, by Bruce Kuklick
  • Outland, Tapping the Pines: The Naval Stores Industry in the American South, by James E. Fickle
  • Pacheco, The Pearl: A Failed Slave Escape on the Potomac, by Keith P. Griffler
  • Palladino, Skilled Hands, Strong Spirits: A Century of Building Trades History, by Steven High
  • Peacock, Watson, and Matthews, eds., The American South in a Global World, by Jon Smith
  • Powers-Beck, The American Indian Integration of Baseball, by Bruce A. Rubenstein
  • Pruitt, “A Looking-Glass for Ladies”: American Protestant Women and the Orient in the Nineteenth Century, by Rui Yazawa Kohiyama
  • Quiroz, Claiming Citizenship: Mexican Americans in Victoria, Texas, by Richard A. Garcia
  • Raphael-Hernandez, ed., Blackening Europe: The African American Presence, by Wilfried Raussert
  • Rarick, California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown, by Roger W. Lotchin
  • Reimers, Other Immigrants: The Global Origins of the American People, by Reed Ueda
  • Reinharz and Raider, eds., American Jewish Women and the Zionist Enterprise, by Hasia R. Diner
  • Reiß, Radikalismus und Exil: Gustav Struve und die Demokratie in Deutschland und Amerika (Radicalism and exile: Gustav Struve and democracy in Germany and America), by Walter D. Kamphoefner
  • Revels, Grander in Her Daughters: Florida’s Women during the Civil War, by Jacqueline Glass Campbell
  • Rhodes, Electric Ladyland: Women and Rock Culture, by Steve Waksman
  • Ridlon, A Black Physician’s Struggle for Civil Rights: Edward C. Mazique, M.D, by Lynn Marie Pohl
  • Rigg, Rescued from the Reich: How One of Hitler’s Soldiers Saved the Lubavitcher Rebbe, by Joseph W. Bendersky
  • Robertson, Crimes against Children: Sexual Violence and Legal Culture in New York City, 1880–1960, by Joel Best
  • Robins, A. J. Tomlinson: Plainfolk Modernist, by James R. Goff Jr.
  • Rodriguez, ed., Repositioning North American Migration History: New Directions in Modern Continental Migration, Citizenship, and Community, by Keith Fitzgerald
  • Rohrer, Hope’s Promise: Religion and Acculturation in the Southern Backcountry, by Frederick A. Bode
  • Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South, by Junius P. Rodriguez
  • Rubin, A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, 1861–1868, by Paul D. Escott
  • Salvatore, Singing in a Strange Land: C. L. Franklin, the Black Church, and the Transformation of America, by Keith D. Miller
  • Schoen, Choice & Coercion: Birth Control, Sterilization, and Abortion in Public Health and Welfare, by Jennifer Nelson
  • Schüler, Frauenbewegung und soziale Reform: Jane Addams und Alice Salomon im transatlantischen Dialog, 1889–1933 (The women’s movement and social reform: Jane Addams and Alice Salomon in transatlantic dialogue, 1889–1933), by Suzanne M. Sinke
  • Schwartz, Flying Down to Rio: Hollywood, Tourists, and Yankee Clippers, by Dominick A. Pisano
  • Sensbach, Rebecca’s Revival: Creating Black Christianity in the Atlantic World, by Carol V. R. George
  • Shogan, The Battle of Blair Mountain: The Story of America’s Largest Labor Uprising, by John Hennen
  • Siddali, From Property to Person: Slavery and the Confiscation Acts, 1861–1862, by Michael W. Fitzgerald
  • Sides, L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present, by Eric Avila
  • Sitton and Conrad, Freedom Colonies: Independent Black Texans in the Time of Jim Crow, by Jeannie M. Whayne
  • Slater, Public Workers: Government Employee Unions, the Law, and the State, 1900–1962, by Steve Golin
  • Smoodin, Regarding Frank Capra: Audience, Celebrity, and American Film Studies, 1930–1960, by John Raeburn
  • Steenburg, Children and the Criminal Law in Connecticut, 1635–1855: Changing Perceptions of Childhood, by Daniel Scott Smith
  • Strain, Pure Fire: Self-Defense as Activism in the Civil Rights Era, by Komozi Woodard
  • Stuckey, Defining Americans: The Presidency and National Identity, by Louis W. Liebovich
  • Sweet, Negotiating for Georgia: British-Creek Relations in the Trustee Era, 1733–1752, by
  • Taylor, Citizenship and Democratic Doubt: The Legacy of Progressive Thought, by Andrew Feffer
  • Tomlinson, Head Masters: Phrenology, Secular Education, and Nineteenth-Century Social Thought, by William W. Cutler III
  • Tripp, ed. by Gannett, The Intimate World of Abraham Lincoln, by Matthew Pinsker
  • Trost, Gateway to Justice: The Juvenile Court and Progressive Child Welfare in a Southern City, by Anne Meis Knupfer
  • Tucker and Russell, eds., Natural Enemy, Natural Ally: Toward an Environmental History of Warfare, by Sheldon Ungar
  • Tushnet, ed., The Constitution in Wartime: Beyond Alarmism and Complacency, by Jonathan Lurie
  • van Minnen and Hilton, eds., Frontiers and Boundaries in U.S. History, by Andrew R. L. Cayton
  • Vinovskis, The Birth of Head Start: Preschool Education Policies in the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations, by Harvey Kantor
  • Volanto, Texas, Cotton, and the New Deal, by David E. Hamilton
  • Wall, Worrying the Line: Black Women Writers, Lineage, and Literary Tradition, by Kathryne V. Lindberg
  • Wallenstein, Blue Laws and Black Codes: Conflict, Courts, and Change in Twentieth-Century Virginia, by John Charles Boger
  • Wallenstein and Wyatt-Brown, eds., Virginia’s Civil War, by Michael B. Ballard
  • Ware, It’s One O’Clock and Here Is Mary Margaret McBride: A Radio Biography, by Mary Desjardins
  • Watts, ed., Harold Cruse’s The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual Reconsidered, by Richard H. King
  • Wayne, Woman Thinking: Feminism and Transcendentalism in Nineteenth-Century America, by Mary C. Kelley
  • White and White, The Sounds of Slavery: Discovering African American History through Songs, Sermons, and Speech, by Helen Bradley Foster
  • Williams, Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom, by Ronald E. Butchart
  • Wills, Boosters, Hustlers, and Speculators: Entrepreneurial Culture and the Rise of Minneapolis and St. Paul, 1849–1883, by Steven J. Keillor
  • Wilson, Living with Polio: The Epidemic and Its Survivors, by Charlotte G. Borst
  • Wu, Doctor Mom Chung of the Fair-Haired Bastards: The Life of a Wartime Celebrity, by Huping Ling
  • Yuhl, A Golden Haze of Memory: The Making of Historic Charleston, by Carl R. Lounsbury

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • Connecticut History Online, by Walter W. Woodward (p. 1534) Read online >
  • Nineteenth-Century American Children and What They Read; and Children in Urban America Project, by Kelly Schrum (p. 1535) Read online >
  • Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition, History (hearth), by Jessamyn Neuhaus (p. 1536) Read online >
  • The New Deal Stage: Selections from the Federal Theatre Project, 1935–1939, by Lauren Rebecca Sklaroff (p. 1537) Read online >
  • History and Politics Out Loud (hpol), by Samuel Brylawski (p. 1538) Read online >


Recent Scholarship

Browse “Recent Scholarship” listing >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

924 cover

On the cover:

The problems of post-World War II demobilization are evident in this photograph of the basement of 77 East Elm Street in Chicago, where the twenty-year-old waitress Betty Ackerman lived temporarily in 1946. The Time magazine photographer E. S. Purrington and Ackermann had concocted a cover story—that he was her boyfriend—to explain his visit to photograph Ackerman’s tent room. Ackerman’s room was a section of the basement that the landlady conrdoned off with haning sheets so she could squeeze more tenants into the building. A smiling version of this photo appeared in Time’s April 29, 1946, issue with the caption “Shameful crowding.” Courtsey E. S. Purrington. See Laura McEnaney, “Nightmares on Elm Street: Demobilizing in Chicago, 1945–1953,” p. 1265.

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