Journal of American History

Articles

The Politics of “More”: The Labor Question and the Idea of Economic Liberty in Industrial America

John Bates Clark (right) stands with his fellow economist Frank Albert Fetter, c. 1930. Though the two men differed in their theoretical approaches, both called for economists to consider the role of desire in creating value. Courtesy Warren J. Samuels Portrait Collection, Duke University.
Courtesy Duke University.

The growth of large-scale industry and underconsumption caused bitter labor conflicts and economic instability during the Gilded Age. The solution to this dilemma, argued both President Samuel Gompers of the American Federation of Labor and a new generation of economists eager to shape national response to “the labor question,” lay in granting workers’ demands for “more.” More was, in part, an economic demand for higher wages and shorter hours for workers. More income and leisure time would also, economists and labor spokesmen predicted, help alleviate the problem of underconsumption. Rosanne Currarino shows that Gompers and the economists understood more as an answer to an even broader array of social crises because demands for it were also demands for “all” that was “essential to the exercise and enjoyment of liberty.” (pp. 17–36) Read online >

Law and Mass Politics in the Making of the Civil Rights Lawyer, 1931–1941

Former National Bar Association president Raymond Pace Alexander, assisted by Frank Marolla, secured the acquittal of Stella Alfonsi in a high-profile 1939 Philadelphia murder trial. For Alexander and his colleagues at the black bar, litigation was a public performance that made them especially open to the radicals’ tactics. Left to right: Marolla, Alfonsi, Alexander. Courtesy University of Pennsylvania Archives.
Courtesy University of Pennsylvania Archives.

What was the role of law and lawyers in the civil rights movement? Recent work has emphasized a tension between the legal strategies of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (naacp) and a commitment to mass movement politics and economic populism. Kenneth W. Mack takes up this question by examining the everyday lives and litigation performances of depression-era black lawyers affiliated with the naacp. Responding to the critics on their left, the lawyers fashioned a new professional identity that melded the naacp’s traditional approaches and concerns with a commitment to mass democratic politics. (pp. 37–62) Read online >

Recreation and Race in the Postwar City: Buffalo’s 1956 Crystal Beach Riot

The Magic Palace fun house at the center of Crystal Beach amusement park, on the Canadian side of Lake Erie across from Buffalo, New York, exemplifies an era when jets of air lifted women’s skirts and customers tumbled down the “magic carpet” upon exiting. When this photograph was taken around 1970, both the fun house and Ferris wheel showed their age. Courtesy Victoria Wolcott.
Courtesy Victoria Wolcott.

Much of the work of racial integration after World War II was done, not by organized activists, but by young African American consumers. That was especially true as black migration and white flight increased spatial segregation in American cities and young African Americans demanded inclusion at sites of commercial recreation. Victoria W. Wolcott argues that teenagers were on the front lines of mid-twentieth-century racial conflict. She uses a 1956 riot in an amusement park near Buffalo, New York, to suggest that controversies over juvenile delinquency masked more profound racial struggles over public space in American cities. (pp. 63–90) Read online >

“Lift Up Yr Self!”: Reinterpreting Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), Black Power, and the Uplift Tradition

After arriving in Greenwich Village in 1957, LeRoi Jones quickly entered the artistic circle around Gregory Corso, Allen Ginsberg, and Jack Kerouac. By 1965, however, Jones had renounced his status as “die schwartze Bohemien” among these beat luminaries. Jones’s relocation to Harlem marked his adoption of a separatist politics. Photograph by Leroy McLucas, 1960. Courtesy Photographs and Prints Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
Courtesy New York Public Library.

Looking beyond the sensational postures and inflammatory rhetoric of the black power movement, historians have begun to analyze it as a political response to the crisis in American cities during the 1960s and 1970s and an intensification of previous African American demands for self-determination and self-defense. In a study of the experiences of the writer and activist Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), Daniel Matlin argues that black power’s masculine ideal was not anarchic and devoid of social responsibility. Instead, Baraka and other black power activists appropriated and embellished the patriarchal masculine ideal of “protecting and providing” that had long characterized the African American “uplift tradition.” (pp. 91–116) Read online >

Review Essay

Can History Be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past

Wikipedia today: The current home page for Wikipedia reflects the scale of the project (more than 1 million English-language articles) and its multiple languages.

The online encyclopedia Wikipedia has become the largest source of historical writing on the Internet, the most widely read work of digital history, and the most important free historical resource on the Web. Tens of thousands of people—most of them nonprofessionals and all of them volunteers—have written it collaboratively. This makes Wikipedia the most important application of the principles of the free and open-source software movement to the world of cultural production. Roy Rosenzweig offers a preliminary assessment of Wikipedia for professional historians, considering the quality of the historical writing; the way its entries are written, rewritten, and debated; and its implications for our practice as scholars, teachers, and purveyors of the past to the general public. (pp. 117–146) Read online >

Exhibition Reviews

Karen Morita, a member of the group San Jose Taiko, demonstrates the energy of taiko drumming 
during a performance at the San Jose (California) Buddhist Church Betsuin Obon Festival, July 12, 1997. Photo by Michael Olwyler. Courtesy Michael Olwyler and San Jose Taiko.
Courtesy Michael Olwyler and San Jose Taiko.
  • “Clash of Empires: The British, French, & Indian War, 1754–1763,” by Carolyn Gilman (pp. 147–49) Read online >
  • “In Service and Beyond: Domestic Work and Life in a Gilded Age Mansion”; and “From Morning to Night: Domestic Service in the Gilded Age South,” by Catherine Dean (pp. 150–1) Read online >
  • “The Way We Worked,” by Adam J. Hodges (pp. 152–55) Read online >
  • “Resistance or Terrorism? The 1970 Sterling Hall Bombing,” by Timothy C. Glines (pp. 156–57) Read online >
  • “Big Drum: Taiko in the United States,” by Masumi Izumi (pp. 158–60) Read online >
  • “Behind the Magic: Fifty Years of Disneyland,” by Kristin Hass (pp. 161–62) Read online >
  • “The Public Vaults,” by Laura Burd Schiavo (pp. 163–65) Read online >
  • Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History and Culture; and “A Slave Ship Speaks: The Wreck of the Henrietta Marie,” by Mary Beth Corrigan (pp. 166–70) Read online >
  • StoryCorps, by Peter Lamothe and Andrew Horowitz (pp. 171–74) Read online >

Book Reviews

June 2006, Vol. 93 No. 1

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

A
  • Alter, William Dwight Whitney and the Science of Language, by Paul Jerome Croce
  • Azuma, Between Two Empires: Race, History, and Transnationalism in Japanese America, by Ben Kobashigawa
B
  • Bendroth, Fundamentalists in the City: Conflict and Division in Boston’s Churches, 1885–1950, by D. G. Hart
  • Bennett, Religion and the Rise of Jim Crow in New Orleans, by William E. Montgomery
  • Bennett, Democratic Discourses: The Radical Abolition Movement and Antebellum American Literature, by Hugh Davis
  • Berkin, Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America’s Independence, by Joan R. Gundersen
  • Bjelopera, City of Clerks: Office and Sales Workers in Philadelphia, 1870–1920, by Francis Ryan
  • Blum, Reforging the White Republic: Race, Religion, and American Nationalism, 1865–1898, by William Gravely
  • Bond, ed., French Colonial Louisiana and the Atlantic World, by Light Townsend Cummins
  • Browner, Profound Science and Elegant Literature: Imagining Doctors in Nineteenth-Century America, by Lisa A. Long
  • Burns, The Moral Veto: Framing Contraception, Abortion, and Cultural Pluralism in the United States, by Keith Cassidy
  • Byerly, Fever of War: The Influenza Epidemic in the U.S. Army during World War I, by Heather MacDougall
C
  • Calhoun, Benjamin Harrison, by George W. Geib
  • Camp, Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South, by Christie Anne Farnham [Pope]
  • Canning, The Most American Thing in America: Circuit Chautauqua as Performance, by Andrew C. Rieser
  • Cantor, Dewey and Elvis: The Life and Times of a Rock ’n’ Roll Deejay, by Howard A. DeWitt
  • Carlo, Huguenot Refugees in Colonial New York: Becoming American in the Hudson Valley, by Curtis D. Johnson
  • Caughfield, True Women & Westward Expansion, by Paula Mitchell Marks
  • Cayton and Hobbs, eds., The Center of a Great Empire: The Ohio Country in the Early American Republic, by Susan E. Gray
  • Chernow, Alexander Hamilton, by Stephen B. Presser
  • Clark, The American Discovery of Tradition, 1865–1942, by Paul V. Murphy
  • Coclanis, ed., The Atlantic Economy during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Organization, Operation, Practice, and Personnel, by Franklin W. Knight
  • Cogdell, Eugenic Design: Streamlining America in the 1930s, by Regina Lee Blaszczyk
  • Conway, nasa and the Technopolitics of Supersonic Transportation, 1945–1999, by Andrew Baird
  • Coombs, hmos: An American Health Care Revolution, by Joel D. Howell
  • Craven, Stanford White: Decorator in Opulence and Dealer in Antiquities, by Mary W. Blanchard
  • Crenner, Private Practice: In the Early Twentieth-Century Medical Office of Dr. Richard Cabot, by William G. Rothstein
  • Cuordileone, Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War, by Robert Dean
  • Currell, The March of Spare Time: The Problem and Promise of Leisure in the Great Depression, by Richard Ian Kimball
  • Currie, The Constitution in Congress: Democrats and Whigs, 1829–1861, by Gerald Leonard
D
  • Davis, Goodbye, Judge Lynch: The End of a Lawless Era in Wyoming’s Big Horn Basin, by William D. Carrigan
  • Davis, The Pirates Laffite: The Treacherous World of the Corsairs of the Gulf, by Carl J. Richard
  • DeLyser, Ramona Memories: Tourism and the Shaping of Southern California, by Hal K. Rothman
  • Devlin, Relative Intimacy: Fathers, Adolescent Daughters, and Postwar American Culture, by K. A. Cuordileone
  • Dixon, Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac’s Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America, by William Newbigging
  • Dray, Stealing God’s Thunder: Benjamin Franklin’s Lightning Rod and the Invention of America, by Michael Brian Schiffer
  • Dubber, The Police Power: Patriarchy and the Foundations of American Government, by Steve Herbert
  • Dull, The French Navy and the Seven Years’ War, by Kevin J. Crisman
E
  • Ellis, To the Flag: The Unlikely History of the Pledge of Allegiance, by Stuart McConnell
  • Evans, The Legend of John Wilkes Booth: Myth, Memory, and a Mummy, by Terry Alford
F
  • Feldman, When the Mississippi Ran Backwards: Empire, Intrigue, Murder, and the New Madrid Earthquakes, by Alfred A. Cave
  • Flamm, Law and Order: Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s, by Mary C. Brennan
  • Follett, The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana’s Cane World, 1820–1860, by Joseph P. Reidy
  • Foner, In a New Land: A Comparative View of Immigration, by Bryan Thompson
  • Friedman, The Neoconservative Revolution: Jewish Intellectuals and the Shaping of Public Policy, by Kevin J. Smant
G
  • Gardner, The Qualities of a Citizen: Women, Immigration, and Citizenship, 1870–1965, by Caroline Brettell
  • Gilbert, Men in the Middle: Searching for Masculinity in the 1950s, by K. A. Cuordileone
  • Greene, Our Separate Ways: Women and the Black Freedom Movement in Durham, North Carolina, by Joyce A. Hanson
  • Grenier, The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607–1814, by Matthew C. Ward
  • Grunden, Secret Weapons and World War II: Japan in the Shadow of Big Science, by Richard H. Minear
H
  • Hessinger, Seduced, Abandoned, and Reborn: Visions of Youth in Middle-Class America, 1780–1850, by Steven Mintz
  • Hill, Napoleon’s Troublesome Americans: Franco-American Relations, 1804–1815, by Reginald C. Stuart
  • Horne, Red Seas: Ferdinand Smith and Radical Black Sailors in the United States and Jamaica, by Michael Keith Honey
  • Howard, Forgotten Radicals: Communists in the Pennsylvania Anthracite, 1919–1950, by Michael Nash
J
  • Jackson, Domesticating the West: The Re-creation of the Nineteenth-Century American Middle Class, by Adrienne Caughfield
  • Jaehn, Germans in the Southwest, 1850–1920, by Don Heinrich Tolzmann
K
  • Kann, Punishment, Prisons, and Patriarchy: Liberty and Power in the Early American Republic, by G. S. Rowe
  • Klapper, Jewish Girls Coming of Age in America, 1860–1920, by Deborah Dash Moore
  • Kochavi, pows in Nazi Germany, by Arnold Krammer
  • Kohn, This Kindred People: Canadian-American Relations and the Anglo-Saxon Idea, 1895–1903, by Graeme S. Mount
  • Krahulik, Provincetown: From Pilgrim Landing to Gay Resort, by Steven Maynard
  • Krenn, Fall-Out Shelters for the Human Spirit: American Art and the Cold War, by Donna M. Binkiewicz
  • Krugler, English and Catholic: The Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century, by Michal J. Rozbicki
  • Kucich, Ghostly Communion: Cross-Cultural Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature, by Robert Sayre Cox
L
  • LaFeber, lbj, Vietnam, and the 1968 Election, by David M. Barrett
  • Lambert, The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World, by Robert J. Allison
  • Lee, The American Intellectual Tradition and Multiculturalism, by J. David Hoeveler
  • Leong, The China Mystique: Pearl S. Buck, Anna May Wong, Mayling Soong, and the Transformation of American Orientalism, by Christina Klein
  • Lepore, New York Burning: Liberty, Slavery, and Conspiracy in Eighteenth-Century Manhattan, by Peter Charles Hoffer
  • Lerner, ed., lbj: White House Politics in a New Light, by Julian E. Zelizer
  • Levy, The First Emancipator: The Forgotten Story of Robert Carter, the Founding Father Who Freed His Slaves, by Philip J. Schwarz
  • Lewis, The Changing Face of Public History: The Chicago Historical Society and the Transformation of an American Museum, by Nancy J. Fuller
  • Liu, The Transnational History of a Chinese Family: Immigrant Letters, Family Business, and Reverse Migration, by Sue Fawn Chung
  • Lübken, usa and the national socialist challenge in Latin America, 1937–1945), by Robert E. Herzstein
  • Lyons, William Dunlap and the Construction of an American Art History, by William T. Oedel
M
  • Mancke and Shammas, eds., The Creation of the British Atlantic World, by Nicholas Canny
  • Masuda, Amerika Eiga ni arawareta Nihon Imeiji no Henson (The transition of images of “Japan” in American films), by Kyoko Hirano
  • May, fbi, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Liuzzo, by Christopher Barry Strain
  • McManus, The Line Which Separates: Race, Gender, and the Making of the Alberta-Montana Borderlands, by Frances W. Kaye
  • McWilliams, A Revolution in Eating: How the Quest for Food Shaped America, by Paul G. E. Clemens
  • Monod, Settling Scores: German Music, Denazification, & the Americans, 1945–1953, by Steven P. Remy
  • Morrison, John Witherspoon and the Founding of the American Republic, by Maxine N. Lurie
N
  • Nash, The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America, by Edward Countryman
  • Neff, Honoring the Civil War Dead: Commemoration and the Problem of Reconciliation, by Joan Waugh
  • Nelson, The Elusive Ideal: Equal Educational Opportunity and the Federal Role in Boston’s Public Schools, 1950–1985, by Sol Cohen
  • Nemerov, Icons of Grief: Val Lewton’s Home Front Pictures, by William Paul
  • Norrell, The House I Live In: Race in the American Century, by Clayborne Carson
O
  • O’Brien, John F. Kennedy: A Biography, by Thomas J. Carty
  • O’Brien, Henry Adams & the Southern Question, by James Turner
  • Orleck, Storming Caesars Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty, by Lisa Levenstein
  • Orsi, Sunset Limited: The Southern Pacific Railroad and the Development of the American West, 1850–1930, by Claire Strom
  • Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden History of Black Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to the Bloody Election of 1920, by Eric Arnesen
P
  • Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life, by Harry A. Reed
  • Philyaw, Virginia’s Western Visions: Political and Cultural Expansion on an Early American Frontier, by Kevin R. Hardwick
  • Pickus, True Faith and Allegiance: Immigration and American Civic Nationalism, by Leonard Dinnerstein
  • Pierce, Polite Protest: The Political Economy of Race in Indianapolis, 1920–1970, by Darrel E. Bigham
  • Platt, Shock Cities: The Environmental Transformation and Reform of Manchester and Chicago, by Jon C. Teaford
  • Porter, Perils of Dominance: Imbalance of Power and the Road to War in Vietnam, by Mitchell Lerner
  • Pulsipher, Subjects unto the Same King: Indians, English, and the Contest for Authority in Colonial New England, by Colin G. Calloway
R
  • Raibmon, Authentic Indians: Episodes of Encounter from the Late-Nineteenth-Century Northwest Coast, by Michael E. Harkin
  • Ray, The Lyceum and Public Culture in the Nineteenth-Century United States, by James Jasinski
  • Reed, Black Chicago’s First Century, vol. 1: 1833–1900, by Elizabeth Dale
  • Reid, The Ancient Constitution and the Origins of Anglo-American Liberty, by Eldon J. Eisenach
  • Reid, Viola Florence Barnes, 1885–1979: A Historian’s Biography, by Eileen Ka-May Cheng
  • Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, by Stanley Harrold
  • Richter, Home on the Rails: Women, the Railroad, and the Rise of Public Domesticity, by Glenna Matthews
  • Rutkow, Bleeding Blue and Gray: Civil War Surgery and the Evolution of American Medicine, by Glenna R. Schroeder-Lein
  • Rydell and Kroes, Buffalo Bill in Bologna: The Americanization of the World, 1869–1922, by Stefan Rinke
S
  • Sackman, Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden, by Garin Burbank
  • Sammond, Babes in Tomorrowland: Walt Disney and the Making of the American Child, 1930–1960, by Erika Doss
  • Sánchez-Eppler, Dependent States: The Child’s Part in Nineteenth-Century American Culture, by Mark I. West
  • Sandage, Born Losers: A History of Failure in America, by Timothy B. Spears
  • Sargent, The Life of Elaine Goodale Eastman, by Helen M. Bannan
  • Schneller, Breaking the Color Barrier: The U.S. Naval Academy’s First Black Midshipmen and the Struggle for Racial Equality, by Robert A. Pratt
  • Schrepfer, Nature’s Altars: Mountains, Gender, and American Environmentalism, by Philip G. Terrie
  • Scull, Madhouse: A Tragic Tale of Megalomania and Modern Medicine, by Ellen Dwyer
  • Seefeldt, Hantman, and Onuf, eds., Across the Continent: Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and the Making of America, by William E. Foley
  • Segal, Recasting the Machine Age: Henry Ford’s Village Industries, by James A. Ward
  • Seligman, Block by Block: Neighborhoods and Public Policy on Chicago’s West Side, by Joseph Heathcott
  • Sievens, Stray Wives: Marital Conflict in Early National New England, by Gloria L. Main
  • Simpson, Trafficking Subjects: The Politics of Mobility in Nineteenth-Century America, by Cheryl J. Fish
  • Singh, Black Is a Country: Race and the Unfinished Struggle for Democracy, by Scot Brown
  • Sitton, Los Angeles Transformed: Fletcher Bowron’s Urban Reform Revival, 1938–1953, by Chris Rhomberg
  • Skogmar, The United States and the Nuclear Dimension of European Integration, by Klaus Larres
  • Slawson, The Department of Education Battle, 1918–1932: Public Schools, Catholic Schools, and the Social Order, by James W. Fraser
  • Smethurst, The Black Arts Movement: Literary Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s, by Jerry Watts
  • Spears, Chicago Dreaming: Midwesterners and the City, 1871–1919, by Perry R. Duis
  • Springer, Living for the Revolution: Black Feminist Organizations, 1968–1980, by Stewart Burns
  • Staloff, Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding, by John Howe
  • Streichler, Justice Curtis in the Civil War Era: At the Crossroads of American Constitutionalism, by Michael Les Benedict
  • Summerhill, Harvest of Dissent: Agrarianism in Nineteenth-Century New York, by Donald H. Parkerson
T
  • Tracy, Alcoholism in America: From Reconstruction to Prohibition, by John W. Crowley
  • Trefousse, “First Among Equals”: Abraham Lincoln’s Reputation during His Administration, by Thomas R. Turner
U
  • Umansky, From Christian Science to Jewish Science: Spiritual Healing and American Jews, by Yaakov Ariel
V
  • Valelly, The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement, by Paul Ortiz
  • Vickers, with Walsh, Young Men and the Sea: Yankee Seafarers in the Age of Sail, by James C. Bradford
  • Vlasich, Pueblo Indian Agriculture, by R. Douglas Hurt
W
  • Wasson, Museum Movies: The Museum of Modern Art and the Birth of Art Cinema, by Stephen Eskilson
  • Watson, Bread and Roses: Mills, Migrants, and the Struggle for the American Dream, by Dexter Arnold
  • Weber, Bárbaros: Spaniards and Their Savages in the Age of Enlightenment, by F. Todd Smith
  • Weinberg, Labor, Loyalty, & Rebellion: Southwestern Illinois Coal Miners and World War I, by William James Breen
  • Weir, Early New England: A Covenanted Society, by Avihu Zakai
  • Wild, Street Meeting: Multiethnic Neighborhoods in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles, by Thomas J. Jablonsky
  • Williams, Bolton, and Whayne, eds., A Whole Country in Commotion: The Louisiana Purchase and the American Southwest, by Jon Kukla
  • Wong, Americans First: Chinese Americans and the Second World War, by Xiaojian Zhao
  • Wood, The Freedom of the Streets: Work, Citizenship, and Sexuality in a Gilded Age City, by Rebecca Edwards
  • Wright, Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and Consequences of Independence, by David W. Conroy
Y
  • Yates, Structuring the Information Age: Life Insurance and Technology in the Twentieth Century, by Colin Burke
Z
  • Zaretsky, Secrets of the Soul: A Social and Cultural History of Psychoanalysis, by Ellen Herman
  • Zboray and Zboray, Literary Dollars and Social Sense: A People’s History of the Mass Market Book, by Susan S. Williams
  • Zipf, Labor of Innocents: Forced Apprenticeship in North Carolina, 1715–1919, by Hugh D. Hindman

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • Berkeley Digital Map Collection; Osher Map Library; and Federal Township Plats of Illinois, 1804–1891, by David J. Bodenhamer (pp. 304–5) Read online >
  • The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers at the Library of Congress, by Tom D. Crouch (p. 306) Read online >
  • North American Women’s Letters and Diaries: Colonial Times to 1950, by Ann Fabian (p. 306) Read online >
  • National Postal Museum, by David Hochfelder (p. 307) Read online >
  • Jews in America: Our Story, by Daniel Greene (p. 308) Read online >

Letters to the Editor

Announcements

Recent Scholarship

Browse “Recent Scholarship” listing >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

Cover Image June 2006

On the cover:

Samuel Gompers (second from right) was an enthusiastic cyclist. During his trip to London in 1895, he joined the leader of the 1889 London dock strike, Benjamin Tillett (second from left), and two others for a ride. Gompers frequently argued that such leisure activities were essential if workers were to enjoy lives “commensurate with the civilization of our time.” Courtesy George Meany Memorial Archives. See Rosanne Currarino, “The Politics of ‘More’: The Labor Question and the Idea of Economic Liberty in Industrial America,” p. 17.

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