Journal of American History


“Where the Common People Could Speculate”: The Ticker, Bucket Shops, and the Origins of Popular Participation in Financial Markets, 1880–1920

This photograph of the main New York City office of the bucket shop Haight & Freese shows the proximity of the tickers to the order desk.
Courtesy Haight & Freese’s Guide to Investors (Philadelphia, 1899).

David Hochfelder explores the relationship between technological innovation, social change, and cultural expectations by showing how the stock ticker increased participation in the nation’s financial markets. By 1880 the ticker broadcast real-time market information to thousands of locations. But high margins, large lot sizes, and broker commissions barred all but the wealthy from the markets. Bucket shops, where patrons gambled small sums on the price movements of stocks and commodities, were the only venue for people of limited means to participate, however vicariously, in financial markets. The ticker, by its intimate connection to bucket shops, helped make speculation a popular leisure activity and exposed trouble-some moral and economic relationships between markets and gambling. (pp. 335–58) Read online >

“Religion as Identity in Postwar America: The Last Serious Attempt to Put a Question on Religion in the United States Census”

Conrad Taeuber, pictured here, was assistant director for demographic fields for the 1960 U.S. census. Charged with designing the questionnaire for that census, Taeuber sought to include a question that read: "What is your religion?"
Courtesy U.S. Census Bureau.

In post-World War II America, religion became a social marker almost as important as race. When the United States Census Bureau publicly considered putting a question on religion in the 1960 census, it sparked a nation-wide debate dominated by organized Catholics and Jews who sought to solidify their position in a pluralistic America. Kevin M. Schultz argues that this confrontation shows Catholics’ hope that their numbers would solidify their credentials as good Americans, American Jews’ fear that the data would revive hostile stereotypes, and the Protestant majority’s ambivalence. The decision to leave religious questions out of the census demonstrates the power of the organized Jewish community to affect American institutions through mobilization and alliances with others uneasy about public recognition of religion. (pp. 359–84) Read online >


American Consumerism

Our conversation, “Exchange: American Consumerism,” offers a critique of the emergent field of consumer history followed by comments from two historians who have done much to establish the field.

All Hail the Republic of Choice: Consumer History as Contemporary Thought

Consumer history rests on interpretive assumptions drawn from anthropology and media studies: that consumer choice is an autonomous act; that consumer choice reflects group solidarities and reinforces cultural diversity; and that consumer choices have dictated the course of American history. David Steigerwald scrutinizes the development of those often unexamined analytical premises. He argues that consumption is ordinarily a trivial and subjective act without larger importance and that the prevailing assumptions about consumption tell us more about the present intellectual moment than about the past. (pp. 385–403) Read online >

Will American Consumers Buy a Second American Revolution?

Like David Steigerwald, T. H. Breen questions the value of treating consumption as an overarching, independent analytic category, but he challenges Steigerwald’s rejection of consumption as a historical force for political liberation. Instead, Breen contends that consumer behavior acquired effective meaning—especially, political meaning—in specific historical contexts. Focusing on popular mobilization on the eve of the American Revolution, he links household consumption with production and suggests that individual decisions about purchasing manufactured items could become a powerful form of political resistance within communities of men and women prepared to demand consumer sacrifice in the name of a common good. (pp. 404–08) Read online >

Escaping Steigerwald’s “Plastic Cages”: Consumers as Subjects and Objects in Modern Capitalism

Lizabeth Cohen welcomes David Steigerwald’s examination of the fertile but chaotic field of consumer history as a positive step in the maturation of the evolving scholarship. Acknowledging his praise for her focus on the material, objective reality of consumption over consumers’ subjective meaning making and on the ways consumption has oppressed rather than liberated Americans, she nonetheless challenges Steigerwald’s stark dichotomies. She proposes that consumers’ subjective responses and the structures of capitalism exist in dialectical relationship. Two contemporary cases–how China’s consumers have changed McDonald’s and how a Hollywood movie has inspired Latinos to protest recent congressional action on immigration–demonstrate that consumer response can alter economic and political realities. (pp. 409–13) Read online >

Round Table

Contemporary Anti-Americanism

The JAH round table “Contemporary Anti-Americanism” showcases the reflections of Rob Kroes, a Dutch scholar who directed the University of Amsterdam’s American Studies Program. On his retirement in 2005, he delivered a farewell address. Reprinted here, Kroes’s address describes his lifelong affinity with the United States, as a country and a culture, and details how his affection has been shaken by recent American policies. Kroes had explored anti-Americanism throughout his career, examining the perceptions and misperceptions that led other nations to resist America’s impact on their collective lives. In the past few years, however, the topic gained personal poignancy. For the first time in his life, the author has felt forced to measure the shift in his inner image of America and to ask the question: Had he become anti-American himself? (pp. 414–51)

To introduce Kroes’s essay, David Thelen comments on Kroes’s career in connection with European encounters with American culture and politics since World War II. Kroes’s piece is followed by responses from an international group of scholars—David Chidester, Kate Delaney, László Pordány, and Philippe Roger—who offer their perspectives on the current state of anti-Americanism.

  • A Moment in a Scholar’s Understanding of America: Attending Rob Kroess Retirement Talk
    David Thelen (pp. 414–416) Read online >
  • European Anti-Americanism: What’s New?
    Rob Kroes (pp. 417–31) Read online >
  • Atlantic Community, Atlantic World: Anti-Americanism between Europe and Africa
    David Chidester (pp. 432–436) Read online >
  • What’s New? Don’t Forget Capitol Hill
    Kate Delaney (pp. 437–40) Read online >
  • The Eastern European Scene
    László Pordány (pp. 441–47) Read online >
  • Global Anti-Americanism and the Lessons of the “French Exception”
    Philippe Roger (pp. 448–51) Read online >


A poster in the War Museum in Hanoi, Vietnam, shows North Vietnamese artists' ongoing anger at the United States over the war and their sense of triumph at having defeated both the United States and China. The poster above was created by Huynh Van Gum and printed in 1965. The flag attached to the bayonet is the flag of the North Vietnamese National Liberation Front (NFL). The top half is red, representing Communism, and the bottom half is blue, the color of brotherhood, referring to the  NFL fighters' ties to their "brothers" in South Vietnam.
Courtesy Ted Engelmann.

Legacies of the Vietnam War

David Anderson, Christian Appy, Mark Philip Bradley, Robert K. Brigham, Ted Engelmann, Patrick Hagopian, Luu Doan Huynh, and Marilyn B. Young (pp. 451–90) Read online >

Book Reviews

Sept. 2006, Vol. 93 No. 2

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Ackerman, The Failure of the Founding Fathers: Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy, by Charles F. Hobson
  • Aiken, Idaho’s Bunker Hill: The Rise and Fall of a Great Mining Company, 1885–1981, by Duane A. Smith
  • Allison, Stephen Decatur: American Naval Hero, 1779–1820, by Wade G. Dudley
  • Anderson, The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820–1875, by Brian DeLay
  • Anderson, Black, White, and Catholic: New Orleans Interracialism, 1947–1956, by James B. Bennett
  • Bailey, Around the Family Altar: Domesticity in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1865–1900, by Wallace D. Best
  • Baker, Sisters: The Lives of America’s Suffragists, by Rebecca J. Mead
  • Banner, How the Indians Lost Their Land: Law and Power on the Frontier, by James Taylor Carson
  • Barbas, The First Lady of Hollywood: A Biography of Louella Parsons, by Bernard F. Dick
  • Barrett, The cia and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy, by Sean Malloy
  • Beck, The Struggle for Self-Determination: History of the Menominee Indians since 1854, by Andrew Denson
  • Beekman, William Dudley Pelley: A Life in Right-Wing Extremism and the Occult, by Eckard V. Toy Jr.
  • Belknap, The Supreme Court under Earl Warren, 1953–1969, by Ronald Kahn
  • Berger, Sight Unseen: Whiteness and American Visual Culture, by Bridget T. Heneghan
  • Berlin and Harris, eds., Slavery in New York, by Julie Winch
  • Beyan, African American Settlements in West Africa: John Brown Russwurm and the American Civilizing Efforts, by Eric Burin
  • Biesen, Blackout: World War II and the Origin of Film Noir, by Eric Schaefer
  • Boisseau, White Queen: May French-Sheldon and the Imperial Origins of American Feminist Identity, by Bonnie G. Smith
  • Bokovoy, The San Diego World’s Fairs and Southwestern Memory, 1880–1940, by Richard V. Francaviglia
  • Borgwardt, A New Deal for the World: America’s Vision for Human Rights, by Simon Payaslian
  • Bowling and Kennon, eds., Establishing Congress: The Removal to Washington, D.C., and the Election of 1800, by James M. Banner Jr.
  • Brewer, By Birth or Consent: Children, Law, and the Anglo-American Revolution in Authority, by Anne S. Lombard
  • Brown, The Corporate Eye: Photography and the Rationalization of American Commercial Culture, 1884–1929, by Harvey Green
  • Budney, William Jay: Abolitionist and Anticolonialist, by Richard S. Newman
  • Burin, Slavery and the Peculiar Solution: A History of the American Colonization Society, by Claude A. Clegg III
  • Burns, To the Mountaintop: Martin Luther King Jr.’s Sacred Mission to Save America, 1955–1968, by James A. Colaiaco
  • Carroll, Word, Image, and the New Negro: Representation and Identity in the Harlem Renaissance, by Kenneth W. Warren
  • Chapin, Exploring Other Worlds: Margaret Fox, Elisha Kent Kane, and the Antebellum Culture of Curiosity, by Bret E. Carroll
  • Childs, The Texas Railroad Commission: Understanding Regulation in America to the Mid-Twentieth Century, by Diana Davids Hinton
  • Cimprich, Fort Pillow, a Civil War Massacre, and Public Memory, by Dwight T. Pitcaithley
  • Clarke, Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic, by William Kauffman Scarborough
  • Crosby, A Little Taste of Freedom: The Black Freedom Struggle in Claiborne County, Mississippi, by Joseph Crespino
  • Dallas, 1945: The War that Never Ended, by Justin Hart
  • Daniel, Toxic Drift: Pesticides and Health in the Post–World War II South, by Gerald Markowitz
  • Davis and Robertson, eds., Virginia at War, 1861, by Jeffrey W. McClurken
  • de la Teja and Frank, eds., Choice, Persuasion, and Coercion: Social Control on Spain’s North American Frontiers, by Charles R. Cutter
  • Delfino and Gillespie, eds., Global Perspectives on Industrial Transformation in the American South, by Bess Beatty
  • Deyle, Carry Me Back: The Domestic Slave Trade in American Life, by Michael Tadman
  • Doerksen, American Babel: Rogue Radio Broadcasters of the Jazz Age, by William Howland Kenney
  • Duncan, Citizens or Papists? The Politics of Anti-Catholicism in New York, 1685–1821, by Francis D. Cogliano
  • Eimers, Preußen und die usa 1850 bis 1867: Transatlantische Wechselwirkungen (Prussia and the usa 1850 to 1867: transatlantic interactions), by Thomas Adam
  • Fehrenbach, Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children in Postwar Germany and America, by Heike Bungert
  • Ferguson, The Sage of Sugar Hill: George S. Schuyler and the Harlem Renaissance, by Anne Elizabeth Carroll
  • Fogelson, Bourgeois Nightmares: Suburbia, 1870–1930, by Michael H. Ebner
  • Foote, Black and White Manhattan: The History of Racial Formation in Colonial New York City, by Thomas J. Davis
  • Franz, Tinkering: Consumers Reinvent the Early Automobile, by Ronald R. Kline
  • Füssl, Deutsch-amerikanischer Kulturaustausch im 20. Jahrhundert: Bildung-Wissenschaft-Politik (German-American cultural exchange in the 20th century: Education-science-politics), by Ronald J. Granieri
  • Gambone, The Greatest Generation Comes Home: The Veteran in American Society, by Judy Barrett Litoff
  • Garb, City of American Dreams: A History of Home Ownership and Housing Reform in Chicago, 1871–1919, by Amanda Irene Seligman
  • Gemme, Domesticating Foreign Struggles: The Italian Risorgimento and Antebellum American Identity, by Adam Tuchinsky
  • Gillette, Camden after the Fall: Decline and Renewal in a Post-Industrial City, by Karen Ferguson
  • Godshalk, Veiled Visions: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot and the Reshaping of American Race Relations, by Gregory Michael Dorr
  • Goodwin, Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, by Frederick J. Blue
  • Goosman, Group Harmony: The Black Urban Roots of Rhythm and Blues, by Jeffrey Melnick
  • Gould, The Most Exclusive Club: A History of the Modern United States Senate, by Daniel Wirls
  • Graham, Unguarded Gates: A History of America’s Immigration Crisis, by Andrew Gyory
  • Gregory, The Southern Diaspora: How the Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America, by Matthew C. Whitaker
  • Hall, Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links, by Dylan C. Penningroth
  • Halliwell, The Constant Dialogue: Reinhold Niebuhr and American Intellectual Culture, by Robert Booth Fowler
  • Hansen, First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong, by Martin J. Collins
  • Harvey, Wilderness Forever: Howard Zahniser and the Path to the Wilderness Act, by Karl Jacoby
  • Heaton, The Shoshone-Bannocks: Culture and Commerce at Fort Hall, 1870–1940, by Andrew Denson
  • Holl, From the Boardroom to the War Room: America’s Corporate Liberals and fdr’s Preparedness Program, by Michael Augspurger
  • Holm, The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs: Native Americans & Whites in the Progressive Era, by Daniel Cobb
  • Horn, A Land as God Made It: Jamestown and the Birth of America, by Douglas Deal
  • Ingersoll, To Intermix with Our White Brothers: Indian Mixed Bloods in the United States from Earliest Times to the Indian Removals, by David J. Silverman
  • Isenberg, Mining California: An Ecological History, by James J. Rawls
  • Israel, Before Scopes: Evangelicalism, Education, and Evolution in Tennessee, 1870–1925, by James P. Byrd Jr.
  • Johnson, Street Justice: A History of Police Violence in New York City, by Markus Dirk Dubber
  • Jordan-Lake, Whitewashing Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Nineteenth-Century Women Novelists Respond to Stowe, by Barbara Hochman
  • Kalman, Yale Law School and the Sixties: Revolt and Reverberations, by Paul Lyons
  • Kaye, Thomas Paine and the Promise of America, by John P. Kaminski
  • Kierner, Scandal at Bizarre: Rumor and Reputation in Jefferson’s America, by Annette Gordon-Reed
  • Kingsland, The Evolution of American Ecology, 1890–2000, by Gregg A. Mitman
  • Kisatsky, The United States and the European Right, 1945–1955, by James F. Tent
  • Knight, Citizen: Jane Addams and the Struggle for Democracy, by Maureen A. Flanagan
  • Koistinen, Arsenal of World War II: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1940–1945, by Ellis W. Hawley
  • Kripal and Shuck, eds., On the Edge of the Future: Esalen and the Evolution of American Culture, by Sarah M. Pike
  • Kruse, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism, by Jeff Roche
  • Kurilla, Zaokeanskie partnery: Amerika i Rossiia v 1830–1850-e gody (Transoceanic partners: America and Russia from the 1830s through the 1850s), by J. Dane Hartgrove
  • Larkin, Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution, by Matthew Rainbow Hale
  • Laurie, Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform, by Michael D. Pierson
  • Lause, Young America: Land, Labor, and the Republican Community, by Christopher Clark
  • Lavi, The Modern Art of Dying: A History of Euthenasia in the United States, by Michael A. Flannery
  • Lewis, Eddie Rickenbacker: An American Hero in the Twentieth Century, by David T. Courtwright
  • Loewen, Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism, by Luther James Adams
  • Luconi and Tintori, L’ombra lunga del fascio: Canali di propaganda fascita per gli “italiani d’America” (The long shadow of fascism: Channels of fascist propaganda for “Italian Americans”), by Fraser M. Ottanelli
  • Mann, George Washington’s War on Native America, by David Dixon
  • Matovina, Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present, by Anthony Quiroz
  • McCune, “The Whole Wide World Without Limits”: International Relief, Gender Politics, and American Jewish Women, 1893–1930, by Joyce Antler
  • Milkis and Mileur, eds., The Great Society and the High Tide of Liberalism, by Michael K. Brown
  • Mills, Their Last Battle: The Fight for the National World War II Memorial, by Christopher A. Thomas
  • Mobley, “War Governor of the South”: North Carolina’s Zeb Vance in the Confederacy, by Russell Duncan
  • Monaghan, Learning to Read and Write in Colonial America, by Ruth Wallis Herndon
  • Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America, by Sandra D. Harmon
  • Morgan and Rushton, Eighteenth-Century Criminal Transportation: The Formation of the Criminal Atlantic, by Hamish Maxwell-Stewart
  • Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida, by R. Bruce Stephenson
  • Myers, Henry Wilson and the Coming of the Civil War, by David F. Ericson
  • Nadel, Television in Black-and-White America: Race and National Identity, by Steven D. Classen
  • O’Neill, Working the Navajo Way: Labor and Culture in the Twentieth Century, by Donald L. Parman
  • O’Neill, Originalism in American Law and Politics: A Constitutional History, by Charles A. Lofgren
  • Olson, Wives of Steel: Voices of Women from the Sparrows Point Steelmaking Communities, by Ellen Baker
  • Parmet, The Master of Seventh Avenue: David Dubinsky and the American Labor Movement, by Richard A. Greenwald
  • Parson, Making a Better World: Public Housing, the Red Scare, and the Direction of Modern Los Angeles, by John F. Bauman
  • Patel, Soldiers of Labor: Labor Service in Nazi Germany and New Deal America, 1933–1945, by Olaf Stieglitz
  • Patterson, Beyond the Gibson Girl: Reimagining the American New Woman, 1895–1915, by Lois Rudnick
  • Paul, Blue Water Creek and the First Sioux War, 1854–1856, by Durwood Ball
  • Portnoy, Their Right to Speak: Women’s Activism in the Indian and Slave Debates, by Mary Hershberger
  • Powers, Mark Twain: A Life, by Robert Middlekauff
  • Prushankin, A Crisis in Confederate Command: Edmund Kirby Smith, Richard Taylor, and the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, by Michael B. Dougan
  • Richards, Poland Spring: A Tale of the Gilded Age, 1860–1900, by Theodore Corbett
  • Righter, The Battle over Hetch Hetchy: America’s Most Controversial Dam and the Birth of Modern Environmentalism, by Donald J. Pisani
  • Roberson, Fighting the Good Fight: The Story of Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, 1865–1977, by David L. Chappell
  • Rosen, Roosevelt, the Great Depression, and the Economics of Recovery, by Michael A. Bernstein
  • Rosenberg, How Far the Promised Land? World Affairs and the American Civil Rights Movement from the First World War to Vietnam, by Charles P. Henry
  • Rountree, Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown, by Margaret Holmes Williamson
  • Rozwadowski, Fathoming the Ocean: The Discovery and Exploration of the Deep Sea, by Phillip Drennon Thomas
  • Salerno, Sister Societies: Women’s Antislavery Organizations in Antebellum America, by Debra Gold Hansen
  • Sanders, While in the Hands of the Enemy: Military Prisons of the Civil War, by Michael P. Gray
  • Schmidt, Restless Souls: The Making of American Spirituality, by Charles H. Lippy
  • Scott, Degrees of Freedom: Louisiana and Cuba after Slavery, by Gilles Vandal
  • Seixas, ed., Theorizing Historical Consciousness, by Peter N. Stearns
  • Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and America’s Vietnam War, by Andrew L. Johns
  • Shimada, Senso to Imin no Shakaishi: Hawai Nikkei Amerikajin no Taiheiyo Senso (A social history of war and immigrants: Japanese immigrants’ experiences in Hawaii during World War II), by Daqing Yang
  • Silverman, Faith and Boundaries: Colonists, Christianity, and Community among the Wampanoag Indians of Martha’s Vineyard, 1600–1871, by Hilary E. Wyss
  • Sioli, Esploranda la nazione. Alle origini del’ espansionismo Americano (Exploring the nation. On the origins of American expansionism), by Evan Haefeli
  • Solinger, Pregnancy and Power: A Short History of Reproductive Politics in America, by Janet Golden
  • Stahr, John Jay: Founding Father, by Terence Ball
  • Starnes, Creating the Land of the Sky: Tourism and Society in Western North Carolina, by Thomas Weiss
  • Steigerwald, Culture’s Vanities: The Paradox of Cultural Diversity in a Globalized World, by Daniel Horowitz
  • Turner, Caribbean Crusaders and the Harlem Renaissance, by Mark I. Helbling
  • Tyrrell, Historians in Public: The Practice of American History, 1890–1970, by Ron Robin
  • Verkruyse, Prophet, Pastor, and Patriarch: The Rhetorical Leadership of Alexander Campbell, by Charles Hambrick-Stowe
  • Vermaas, Sequoia: The Heralded Tree in American Art and Culture, by Michael P. Cohen
  • Wagner, The Poorhouse: America’s Forgotten Institution, by Ruth Crocker
  • Waldstreicher, Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution, by Owen S. Ireland
  • Walker, No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans, by Paul Lachance
  • Walker, Hell’s Broke Loose in Georgia: Survival in a Civil War Regiment, by Peter S. Carmichael
  • Ward, River Run Red: The Fort Pillow Massacre in the American Civil War, by Lonnie E. Maness
  • Warren, The Shawnees and Their Neighbors, 1795–1870, by Roger L. Nichols
  • Watson and Martin, eds., “There She Is, Miss America”: The Politics of Sex, Beauty, and Race in America’s Most Famous Pageant, by Catherine Cocks
  • Weiner, Lake Effects: A History of Urban Policy Making in Cleveland, 1825–1929, by Robert G. Barrows
  • Weitz, More Damning than Slaughter: Desertion in the Confederate Army, by Mary A. DeCredico
  • Wetherington, Plain Folk’s Fight: The Civil War and Reconstruction in Piney Woods Georgia, by Kenneth W. Noe
  • Whalen and Vázquez-Hernández, eds., The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives, by John H. Stinson-Fernández
  • Whitaker, Race Work: The Rise of Civil Rights in the Urban West, by Kevin Mulroy
  • Whites, Gender Matters: Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Making of the New South, by Joan E. Cashin
  • Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln, by Michael F. Holt
  • Wolcott, Cops and Kids: Policing Juvenile Delinquency in Urban America, 1890–1940, by David S. Tanenhaus
  • Wright, The First Wall Street: Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, and the Birth of American Finance, by Carl Lane
  • Young, Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier, by Caroline Cox

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • California Historical Society, by H. Mark Wild (p. 622) Read online >
  • In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience, by Clare Corbould (p. 623) Read online >
  • The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures, by Bonnie M. Miller (p. 624) Read online >
  • The Flint Sit-Down Strike Audio Gallery, by Nancy Gabin (p. 624) Read online >
  • Virtual Museum & Archive of sec and Securities History, by Michael E. Parrish (p. 625) Read online >
  • National Geographic: Remembering Pearl Harbor, by Emily S. Rosenberg (pp. 626–7) Read online >

Editor’s Annual Report, 2005—2006

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

Browse “Recent Scholarship” listing >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

cover image

On the cover:

This 1883 board game was emblematic of the American public’s fascination with speculation in the wake of the widespread adoption of the ticker. Courtesy the Museum of American Finance. See David Hochfelder, “‘Where the Common People Could Speculate’: The Ticker, Bucket Shops, and the Origins of Popular Participation in Financial Markets, 1880—1920,” p. 335.

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