Journal of American History


Public at the Creation: Place, Memory and Historical Practice in the Mississippi Valley Historical Association

Clarence S. Paine, secretary of the Nebraska State Historical Society, provided the vision for a historical society based in “the Valley” that would bring together amateurs, state historical society representatives, other “public” historians, and academics.
Courtesy Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, Nebraska.

On the centennial of the Organization of American Historians (oah), Ian Tyrrell re-evaluates its formative years as the Mississippi Valley Historical Association (mvha). That association, he argues, held strong attachments to an imagined place, nurtured by its members through collective practices of memory and expressed in now-forgotten forays into public history. These endeavors raise questions about professional history's supposed detachment from the public and, more generally, about the genealogies of American historiography. Through its practices, the association promoted a distinctive research culture focused on the Mississippi Valley. Tyrrell seeks to recover a lost historical world that bequeathed important traditions to contemporary scholarship. (pp. 19–46) Read online >

The Army in the Marketplace: Recruiting an All-Volunteer Force

Civilian young men in the early 1970s wore their hair long, and for many the standard military haircut symbolized the loss of personal freedom and the surrender of individuality. Here, “Today's Army” promises potential recruits: “We care more about how you think, than how you cut your hair.”
Courtesy Smithsonian Institution.

In 1973 the United States abandoned the draft in favor of an all-volunteer military, despite the warnings of the House Armed Services Committee that such a force could be achieved only through a draft. The primary mover behind the shift to a volunteer force was neither public discontent nor youthful protesters, but a group of free-market economists surrounding Richard M. Nixon. Beth Bailey analyzes the move from a troubled military system based on the obligations of (male) citizenship to one that relied on market logic and on sophisticated marketing campaigns that pinpointed the supposed psychological needs of America's youth and promoted military service as a way to fulfill them. (pp. 47–74) Read online >

For suggestions on how to use this article in the U.S. history classroom, see our Teaching the JAH; Web project at

Black Civil Rights and Liberal Anticommunism: The naacp in the Early Cold War

According to a number of historians, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (naacp) squandered an opportunity to foment sweeping racial and social change when it embraced anticommunism during the early Cold War era. Manfred Berg engages this criticism, contesting both the empirical basis that undegirds it and the proposition that a historical opportunity was lost. By probing the organization's records, he dispels the myth that the naacp purged thousands of Communists during the McCarthy era. Moreover, he argues that the naacp had valid reasons to distance itself from the radical Left. In so doing, Berg contributes to a reassessment of both the history of the naacp and the relationship between the Cold War and civil rights. (pp. 75–96) Read online >

Round Table

American Faces: Twentieth Century Photographs

This photograph of Herman A. “Germany” Schaefer, taken in 1911, was the millionth image scanned from the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division collections and made available online.
Courtesy Library of Congress.

Photographs represent a ubiquitous feature of contemporary life. As the essays collected in the “American Faces” round table testify, photographs also serve as primary-source documents that yield important information about the past and illuminate larger historical issues. The authors of these pieces—David Allen, Claude Cookman, Ted Englemann, Anthony Fernandez III, Jonathan Hyman, Michael Lesy, Colleen McDannell, Barbara Orbach Natanson, Eric Sandweiss, Robert Hariman, and John Louis Lucaites—include professional and amateur photographers as well as historians and archivists. Their writings make it clear that there is no single way to understand a particular image. Although a photographer's vision might suggest one way to think about an image, the subjects and viewers can construct alternative meanings; moreover the readings change not only across cultural and social groups but across time as well. In her rejoinder, Martha A. Sandweiss argues that, taken together, these essays raise critical questions about the use of photographs by historians: What does a historian need to know to interpret a photograph as a historical document? And how stable are images as records of the past?

The essays, their illustrations, and additional photographs are available online. Photographs that were originally in color appear in color there. See

  • “Introduction,”
    Donna Drucker and Edward Linenthal (pp. 97–8) Read online >
  • “Worth a Billion Words? Library of Congress Pictures Online,”
    Barbara Orbach Natanson (pp. 99–111) Read online >
  • “Religious History and Visual Culture,”
    Colleen McDannell (pp. 112–21) Read online >
  • “The Times Square Kiss: Iconic Photography and Civil Renewal in U.S. Public Culture,”
    Robert Hariman and John Louis Lucaites (pp. 122–31) Read online >
  • “‘The Day in Its Color’,”
    Eric Sandweiss (pp. 132–42) Read online >
  • “Visual Literacy,”
    Michael Lesy,” (pp. 143–53) Read online >
  • “An American Atrocity: The My Lai Massacre Concretized in a Victim's Face,”
    Claude Cookman (pp. 154–62) Read online >
  • “Where Are Our Fathers?”
    Ted Englemann (pp. 163–71) Read online >
  • “An Image from Oklahoma City,”
    David Allen (pp. 172–78) Read online >
  • “Remembering the Oklahoma City Bombing,”
    Anthony Fernandez (pp. 179–82) Read online >
  • “The Public Face of 9/11: Memory and Portraiture in the Landscape,”
    Jonathan Hyman (pp. 183–92) Read online >
  • “Image and Artifact: The Photograph as Evidence in the Digital Age,”
    Martha A. Sandweiss (pp. 193–202) Read online >

Exhibition Reviews

  • “Slavery in New York,” by Laura M. Chmielewski (pp. 203–08) Read online >
  • “Crossing Cultural Fences: The Intersecting Material World of American Indians and Euro-Americans,” by Mary Murphy (pp. 203–12) Read online >
  • “Ours to Fight For: American Jews in the Second World War,” by Liz Sevcenko (pp. 212–15) Read online >
  • “The Other Promised Land: Vacationing, Identity, and the Jewish-American Dream,” by Nancy Davis (pp. 216–17) Read online >
  • “The Times They Are A-Changin’,” by Jeffrey W. Pickron (pp. 218–20) Read online >
  • “From Cambodia to Carolina: Tracing the Journeys of New Southerners,” by Thomas F. Jackson (pp. 221–23) Read online >
  • “Legends of Deadwood,” by Andrew Urban (pp. 224–31) Read online >

Book Reviews

June 2007, Vol. 94 No. 1

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Abrams, Jewish Women Pioneering the Frontier Trail: A History in the American West, by William Toll
  • Allison, Military Justice in Vietnam: The Rule of Law in an American War, by James J. Weingartner
  • Amenta, When Movements Matter: The Townsend Plan and the Rise of Social Security, by Raymond Richards
  • Anderson, Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Philippines, by Philippa Levine
  • Apple, Perfect Motherhood: Science and Childrearing in America, by Jessica Weiss
  • Arsenault, Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice, by Kenneth T. Andrews
  • Axtell, The Making of Princeton University: From Woodrow Wilson to the Present, by J. Gregory Behle
  • Barton, Hispanic Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists in Texas, by R. Douglas Brackenridge
  • Bauman and Muller, Before Renaissance: Planning in Pittsburgh, 1889–1943, by John N. Ingham
  • Beers, For the Prevention of Cruelty: The History and Legacy of Animal Rights Activism in the United States, by Susan J. Pearson
  • Bellows, A Talent for Living: Josephine Pinckney and the Charleston Literary Tradition, by Betty Brandon
  • Belohlavek, Broken Glass: Caleb Cushing and the Shattering of the Union, by Michael A. Morrison
  • Bender, A Nation among Nations: America’s Place in World History, by Charles S. Maier
  • Block, Rape and Sexual Power in Early America, by Clare A. Lyons
  • Blum and Poole, eds., Vale of Tears: New Essays on Religion and Reconstruction, by William Gravely
  • Bold, Writers, Plumbers, and Anarchists: The wpa Writers’ Project in Massachusetts, by Martha H. Swain
  • Boman, Lincoln’s Resolute Unionist: Hamilton Gamble, Dred Scott Dissenter and Missouri’s Civil War Governor, by Marshall DeRosa
  • Bradley and Dahlen, From Conciliation to Conquest: The Sack of Athens and the Court-Martial of Colonel John B. Turchin, by Brian S. Wills
  • Brown, Southern Outcast: Hinton Rowan Helper and The Impending Crisis of the South, by Eric H. Walther
  • Brown, Richard Hofstadter: An Intellectual Biography, by Neil Jumonville
  • Bruce, The Kentucky Tragedy: A Story of Conflict and Change in Antebellum America, by Daniel A. Cohen
  • Brückner, The Geographic Revolution in Early America: Maps, Literacy, and National Identity, by Gregory Nobles
  • Buescher, The Remarkable Life of John Murray Spear: Agitator for the Spirit Land, by John J. Kucich
  • Burnett, The Pen Makes a Good Sword: John Forsyth of the Mobile Register, by Michael B. Chesson
  • Buscombe, ‘Injuns!’ Native Americans in the Movies, by Charles L. P. Silet
  • Byler, Civil-Military Relations on the Frontier and Beyond, 1865–1917, by Robert G. Angevine
  • Calhoun, Conceiving a New Republic: The Republican Party and the Southern Question, 1869–1900, by Edward Frantz
  • Campbell, Middle Passages: African American Journeys to Africa, 1787–2005, by Tunde R. Adeleke
  • Carso, “Whom Can We Trust Now?” The Meaning of Treason in the United States, from the Revolution through the Civil War, by Peter C. Messer
  • Cave, Prophets of the Great Spirit: Native American Revitalization Movements in Eastern North America, by Joel W. Martin
  • Cogliano, Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy, by Gene Allen Smith
  • Cohrs, The Unfinished Peace after World War I: America, Britain, and the Stabilisation of Europe, 1919–1932, by Stephen A. Schuker
  • Colgrove, State of Immunity: The Politics of Vaccination in Twentieth-Century America, by Lynne Curry
  • Collado Herrera, Dwight W. Morrow: Reencuentro y revolución en las relaciones entre México y Estados Unidos, 1927–1930 (Dwight W. Morrow: Encounter and revolution in diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States, 1927–1930), by Helen Delpar
  • Creech, Righteous Indignation: Religion and the Populist Revolution, by Peter H. Argersinger
  • Curtis, Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960–1975, by Louis A. DeCaro Jr.
  • Cushner, Why Have You Come Here? The Jesuits and the First Evangelization of Native America, by Luca Codignola
  • Czaja, Die usa und ihr Aufstieg zur Weltmacht um die Jahrhundertwende: Die Amerikaperzeption der Parteien im Kaiserreich (The United States and its rise at the turn of the century: The perception of America by the parties in the Reich), by Nancy Mitchell
  • Daniels, The Fourth Revolution: Transformations in American Society from the Sixties to the Present, by Andrew Hunt
  • Davis, Ghosts and Shadows of Andersonville: Essays on the Secret Social Histories of America’s Deadliest Prison, by J. Michael Martinez
  • Delbourgo, A Most Amazing Scene of Wonders: Electricity and Enlightenment in Early America, by Susan Scott Parrish
  • DeRosa, Political Indoctrination in the U.S. Army from World War II to the Vietnam War, by Susan Canedy
  • Downs and Manion, eds., Taking Back the Academy! History of Activism, History as Activism, by John R. Thelin
  • Doyle, Pioneer Spirit: Catherine Spalding, Sister of Charity of Nazareth, by Margaret Susan Thompson
  • DuVal, The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent, by Greg O’Brien
  • Ettinger, Nurse-Midwifery: The Birth of a New American Profession, by Deborah Kuhn McGregor
  • Farber, Taken Hostage: The Iran Hostage Crisis and America’s First Encounter with Radical Islam, by Nur Bilge Criss
  • Feurer, Radical Unionism in the Midwest, 1900–1950, by Edward P. Johanningsmeier
  • Flippen, Conservative Conservationist: Russell E. Train and the Emergence of American Environmentalism, by Jack E. Davis
  • Forret, Race Relations at the Margins: Slaves and Poor Whites in the Antebellum Southern Countryside, by Mark V. Wetherington
  • Foster, Sex and the Eighteenth-Century Man: Massachusetts and the History of Sexuality in America, by Lisa Wilson
  • Frankel, States of Inquiry: Social Investigations and Print Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain and the United States, by Ronald J. Zboray
  • Fraser, Every Man a Speculator: A History of Wall Street in American Life, by Lynne Pierson Doti
  • Gelfand, Sea Change at Annapolis: The United States Naval Academy, 1949–2000, by Robert J. Schneller Jr.
  • Gilfoyle, A Pickpocket’s Tale: The Underworld of Nineteenth-Century New York, by Stephen Duncombe
  • Gillespie, Weapons of Choice: The Development of Precision Guided Munitions, by Conrad C. Crane
  • Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature, by Amy Louise Wood
  • Goodman and Dawson, William Dean Howells: A Writer’s Life, by Leslie Butler
  • Gottschalk, The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America, by Scott Christianson
  • Green, Death in the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement, and the Bombing That Divided Gilded Age America, by Robert Justin Goldstein
  • Gross, Colored Amazons: Crime, Violence, and Black Women in the City of Brotherly Love, 1880–1910, by Shawn Leigh Alexander
  • Hampf and Lehmkuhl, eds., Radio Welten Politische, soziale und kulturelle Aspekte atlantischer Mediengeschichte vor und während des Zweiten Weltkriegs (Radio worlds Political, social, and cultural aspects of transatlantic media history before and during World War II), by David Culbert
  • Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan, by Ralph B. Levering
  • Heinze, Jews and the American Soul: Human Nature in the Twentieth Century, by Eric L. Goldstein
  • Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship! Myths of the War of 1812, by C. Edward Skeen
  • Hoig, White Man’s Paper Trail: Grand Councils and Treaty-Making on the Central Plains, by Raymond J. DeMallie Jr.
  • Holloway, Sexuality, Politics, and Social Control in Virginia, 1920–1945, by William B. Turner
  • Hornstein, A Nation of Realtors: A Cultural History of the Twentieth-Century American Middle Class, by Burton J. Bledstein
  • Howard, Brides, Inc.: American Weddings and the Business of Tradition, by Elizabeth H. Pleck
  • Hurtado, John Sutter: A Life on the North American Frontier, by Michael F. Magliari
  • James, The Conspiracy of the Good: Civil Rights and the Struggle for Community in Two American Cities, 1875–2000, by Raymond Wolters
  • Jolly, Black Liberation in the Midwest: The Struggle in St. Louis, Missouri, 1964–1970, by Jeanne Theoharis
  • Jung, Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation, by Cindy Hahamovitch
  • Karp, Missed Opportunities: U.S. Diplomatic Failures and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947–1967, by Salim Yaqub
  • Katz and Stern, One Nation Divisible: What America Was and What It Is Becoming, by Richard P. Horwitz
  • Kazin and McCartin, eds., Americanism: New Perspectives on the History of an Ideal, by Paul T. McCartney
  • Kelley, Learning to Stand and Speak: Women, Education, and Public Life in America’s Republic, by Louise (Lucy) Wilby Knight
  • Kercher, Revel with a Cause: Liberal Satire in Postwar America, by Ethan Thompson
  • Kersten, Labor’s Home Front: The American Federation of Labor during World War II, by Grace Palladino
  • Kirschmann, A Vital Force: Women in American Homeopathy, by Hans A. Baer
  • Kitch, Pages from the Past: History and Memory in American Magazines, by Matthew L. Schneirov
  • Kutulas, The American Civil Liberties Union and the Making of Modern Liberalism, 1930–1960, by Jonathan Bell
  • Layne, The Peace of Illusions: American Grand Strategy from 1940 to the Present, by David F. Schmitz
  • Lee, Black Bangor: African Americans in a Maine Community, 1880–1950, by Ena L. Farley
  • Lightner, Slavery and the Commerce Power: How the Struggle against the Interstate Slave Trade Led to the Civil War, by Robert H. Gudmestad
  • Long, A New Orleans Voudou Priestess: The Legend and Reality of Marie Laveau, by Louis J. Kern
  • Long, Helen Foster Snow: An American Woman in Revolutionary China, by Barbara Bennett Peterson
  • Lovoll, Norwegians on the Prairie: Ethnicity and the Development of the Country Town, by Orm øverland
  • Marietta and Rowe, Troubled Experiment: Crime and Justice in Pennsylvania, 1682–1800, by Peter Okun
  • Mariscal, Brown-Eyed Children of the Sun: Lessons from the Chicano Movement, 1965–1975, by Carlos Kevin Blanton
  • Marr, The Cultural Roots of American Islamicism, by Iftikhar Malik
  • Martínez, Sea la Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism in the American Southwest, 1829–1900, by R. Douglas Brackenridge
  • McGovern, Sold American: Consumption and Citizenship, 1890–1945, by Inger L. Stole
  • Merwick, The Shame and the Sorrow: Dutch-Amerindian Encounters in New Netherland, by James Homer Williams
  • Miller, The Needle’s Eye: Women and Work in the Age of Revolution, by Adrienne D. Hood
  • Millett, The War for Korea, 1945–1950: A House Burning, by Gary R. Hess
  • Morley, Historic Preservation and the Imagined West: Albuquerque, Denver, and Seattle, by Glen Gendzel
  • Moyar, Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965, by Seth Jacobs
  • Myers, Black, White, and Olive Drab: Racial Integration at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, and the Civil Rights Movement, by Alan M. Osur
  • Nemec, Ivory Towers and Nationalist Minds: Universities, Leadership, and the Development of the American State, by Roger L. Geiger
  • Noll and Blumhofer, eds., Sing Them Over Again to Me: Hymns and Hymnbooks in America, by David W. Stowe
  • O’Neill, Rivers by Design: State Power and the Origins of U.S. Flood Control, by Todd Shallat
  • Olegario, A Culture of Credit: Embedding Trust and Transparency in American Business, by Edward Balleisen
  • Onuf and Onuf, Nations, Markets, and War: Modern History and the American Civil War, by Robert J. Cook
  • Parrish, American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World, by Harold L. Burstyn
  • Poole, The Segregated Origins of Social Security: African Americans and the Welfare State, by Deborah E. Ward
  • Prados, Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the cia, by Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones
  • Raymond, From My Cold, Dead Hands: Charlton Heston and American Politics, by Kevin J. Smant
  • Robinson, The Coldest Crucible: Arctic Exploration and American Culture, by Kelly L. Lankford
  • Romano and Raiford, eds., The Civil Rights Movement in American Memory, by Sarah E. Gardner
  • Ryan, Love, Wages, Slavery: The Literature of Servitude in the United States, by Carolyn Vellenga Berman
  • Sachs, The Humboldt Current: Nineteenth-Century Exploration and the Roots of American Environmentalism, by Keith R. Benson
  • Salvatore, Imágenes de un imperio: Estados Unidos y las formas de representación de América Latina (Images of an empire: The United States and the forms of representation of Latin America), by Stephen G. Rabe
  • Sarris, A Separate Civil War: Communities in Conflict in the Mountain South, by Brian D. McKnight
  • Schmitz, The United States and Right-Wing Dictatorships, 1965–1989, by Alan P. Dobson
  • Schultz, The Rural Face of White Supremacy: Beyond Jim Crow, by Debra Reid
  • Schwabe, Weltmacht und Weltordnung Amerikanische Außenpolitik von 1898 bis zur Gegenwart. Eine Jahrhundertgeschichte (World power and world order American foreign policy, 1898 to the present. A history of the 20th century), by Peter F. Coogan
  • Silver, First Contact: Origins of the American-Israeli Connection; Halutzim from America during the Palestine Mandate, by Irvine H. Anderson
  • Simpson, 9/11: The Culture of Commemoration, by Jay Winter
  • Smith, Borderland Smuggling: Patriots, Loyalists, and Illicit Trade in the Northeast, 1783–1820, by Douglas McCalla
  • Smith, No Party Now: Politics in the Civil War North, by Vernon L. Volpe
  • Smith, ed., Long March Ahead: African American Churches and Public Policy in Post–Civil Rights America, by James Findlay
  • Smyth, Reconstructing American Historical Cinema: From Cimarron to Citizen Kane, by Raymond J. Haberski Jr.
  • Souther, New Orleans on Parade: Tourism and the Transformation of the Crescent City, by Char Miller
  • Sparks, Capital Intentions: Female Proprietors in San Francisco, 1850–1920, by B. Zorina Khan
  • Sparks, Raccoon John Smith: Frontier Kentucky’s Most Famous Preacher, by Charles Hambrick-Stowe
  • Sparrow, The Insular Cases and the Emergence of American Empire, by Serge Ricard
  • Speek, “God Has Made Us a Kingdom”: James Strang and the Midwest Mormons, by W. Michael Ashcraft
  • Stanonis, Creating the Big Easy: New Orleans and the Emergence of Modern Tourism, 1918–1945, by Richard D. Starnes
  • Staples, The Birth of Development: How the World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Health Organization Changed the World, 1945–1965, by Robert C. Hilderbrand
  • Stebenne, Modern Republican: Arthur Larson and the Eisenhower Years, by Chris Tudda
  • Stowe, How Sweet the Sound: Music in the Spiritual Lives of Americans, by James R. Goff Jr.
  • Sundquist, Strangers in the Land: Blacks, Jews, Post–Holocaust America, by Tony Martin
  • Teaford, The Metropolitan Revolution: The Rise of Post-Urban America, by John D. Fairfield
  • Thompson, Civil War to the Bloody End: The Life and Times of Major General Samuel P. Heintzelman, by Edward G. Longacre
  • Trafton, Egypt Land: Race and Nineteenth-Century American Egyptomania, by Bruce Dain
  • Treviño, The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston, by Mary E. Odem
  • Van Ruymbeke, From New Babylon to Eden: The Huguenots and Their Migration to Colonial South Carolina, by Neil Kamil
  • Vettel, Biotech: The Countercultural Origins of an Industry, by Daniel Lee Kleinman
  • Wadsworth, In the Company of Books: Literature and Its “Classes” in Nineteenth-Century America, by Barbara Ryan
  • Waldrep, Vicksburg’s Long Shadow: The Civil War Legacy of Race and Remembrance, by Anne Sarah Rubin
  • Walther, William Lowndes Yancey: The Coming of the Civil War, by William A. Link
  • Waselkov, A Conquering Spirit: Fort Mims and the Redstick War of 1813–1814, by Julie Anne Sweet
  • Watts, In This Remote Country: French Colonial Culture in the Anglo-American Imagination, 1780–1860, by Jean Lamarre
  • Wells, Civil War Time: Temporality and Identity in America, 1861–1865, by Jane E. Schultz
  • Wilkinson, Blood Struggle: The Rise of Modern Indian Nations, by Larry Burt
  • Wills, Conservation Fallout: Nuclear Protest at Diablo Canyon, by Robert W. Righter
  • Wright, Slavery and American Economic Development, by Tom Downey
  • Yuill, Richard Nixon and the Rise of Affirmative Action: The Pursuit of Racial Equity in an Era of Limits, by Terry H. Anderson
  • Zboray and Zboray, Everyday Ideas: Socioliterary Experience among Antebellum New Englanders, by Leon Jackson
  • Zeiler, Ambassadors in Pinstripes: The Spalding World Baseball Tour and the Birth of the American Empire, by Allen Guttmann

Web site Reviews

Web site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • The Encyclopedia of Chicago, by Philip Ethington (pp. 363–364)
    Read online >
  • ucla Digital Archive of Popular American Music, by Ronald G. Walters (p. 365) Read online >
  • Bob Hope and American Variety, by LeRoy Ashby (p. 365) Read online >
  • Jacob Lawrence: Over the Line; and Jacob Lawrence: Exploring Stories, by Stephen Robertson (p. 366) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

Browse “Recent Scholarship” listing >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

cover image

On the cover:

As the U.S. Army planned its move to an all-volunteer force, military leaders and their admen recognized that widespread antimilitary sentiment and a youth culture largely at odds with traditional military values would discourage volunteers. The recruiting slogan created by N. W. Ayer in 1971, “Today's Army Wants to Join You,” built on marketing research that found young men wanted their individuality respected. This advertisement proclaims: “Today's Army is willing to pay that price.” Courtesy N. W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records, Archive Center, National Museum of American History, Behring Center, Smithsonian Institution. See Beth Bailey, “The Army in the Marketplace: Recruiting an All-Volunteer Force,” p. 47.

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