Journal of American History


Roger B. Taney and the Slavery Issue: Looking beyond—and before—Dred Scott

This 1849 oil painting of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney by Miner Kilbourne Kellogg portrays Taney as a youthful-looking, serene jurist, quill in hand, as he contemplates writing a legal opinion. In some ways, the portrait reflects Taney’s reputation before the controversial 1857 Dred Scott decision, a time when he was nearly universally liked and respected. Courtesy Library Company of the Baltimore Bar.
Courtesy Library Company of the Baltimore Bar.

Roger B. Taney, the author of the majority opinion in the Dred Scott case, stands out as arguably the most proslavery member of the nineteenth-century Supreme Court. His rhetoric regarding black citizenship (“they have no rights”) and his unqualified commitment to slaveholders’ property rights exemplified his extremism. But Taney had not always voiced support for slavery: as a young Maryland lawyer he had opposed the institution in both word and deed. Examining Taney’s early antislavery record, Timothy S. Huebner traces how, when, and why Taney’s views evolved and eventually hardened over the decades. Significantly, Huebner argues, Taney’s personal and professional ideological trajectory mirrored changes in the national constitutional and political debate over slavery. (pp. 17–38) Read online >

Suicide, Slavery, and Memory in North America

The American Anti-Slavery Almanac for 1838 illustrated the suicide of the slave Paul, who, according to fellow slave Charles Ball, had “suffered so much in slavery that he chose to encounter the hardships and perils of a runaway. He exposed himself, in gloomy forests, to cold and starvation, and finally hung himself, that he might not again fall into the hands of his tormentor.” Nathaniel Southard, ed., American Anti-Slavery Almanac for 1838 (Boston, 1838), 13. Courtesy Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
Courtesy Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

The act of suicide by enslaved peoples raised a number of issues for early North Americans, and Terri L. Snyder explores its changing temperamental, cultural, and political meanings. In her examination of the intersection of suicide and slavery, she evaluates the evidence historians use to study suicide—a relatively understudied subject in American history—and analyzes slave self-destruction from the perspective of involved onlookers, whether slave traders or abolitionists; the ecologies, beyond resistance, that fostered self-destruction in slaves; and the memories of suicide among ex-slaves and descendants of slaves. Capturing this interplay among perceptions, ecology, and memory, Snyder argues, is necessary to historicize suicide and comprehend its multiple meanings over the long sweep of slavery in North America. (pp. 39–62) Read online >

Listen to an interview with Terri L. Snyder about this article in the JAH Podcast.

“Red Cross, Double Cross”: Race and America’s World War II—Era Blood Donor Service

Pfc. Harvey White gives blood plasma to Pvt. Roy Humphrey on August 9, 1943, in Sicily. The plasma came from individual donations made in the United States through the Red Cross Blood Donor Service. Courtesy National Archives and Records Administration, Still Pictures Branch (RG 111, series SC, no. 178198).
Courtesy National Archives and Records Administration, Still Pictures Branch (RG 111, series SC, no. 178198).

America’s World War II—era Blood Donor Service collected blood and plasma from millions of donors, shipped it to service personnel fighting overseas, and saved countless lives. And yet the program first excluded African American donors from taking part and then, only after wide-ranging protest and growing demand for blood, accepted them, but solely on a segregated basis. At least officially, Jim Crow blood policies, targeted exclusively at African Americans, remained in place for the entire war and several years beyond. Thomas A. Guglielmo explores this oft-repeated but little-understood blood story, arguing that it sheds light on the surging wartime black freedom struggle, the early roots of non-essentialist forms of racism, and the multiracial messiness of state-sanctioned color lines. (pp. 63–90) Read online >

From People’s Car to New Beetle: The Transatlantic Journeys of the Volkswagen Beetle

While numerous scholars have drawn attention to America’s post—World War II cultural prominence in Western Europe as an important source of the nation’s “soft power,” Western Europe’s cultural influence on postwar American society has received far less consideration. Identifying the Volkswagen Beetle as a symbolic messenger between West Germany and the United States, Bernhard Rieger examines the cultural, political, and economic dimensions of Americans’ receptivity to European products in the 1950s and 1960s. When understood as a transnational icon, Rieger argues, the Beetle sheds new light on how shared cultural reference points emerged on both sides of the Atlantic and helped consolidate the Western alliance during the Cold War and retained potency beyond the watershed year of 1989. (pp. 91–115) Read online >

Exhibition Reviews

After passing through “The Sixties,” the introductory section of the Museum at Bethel Woods Center for the Arts, visitors arrive at the “Bus Experience,” the focal point of the museum’s next section, “The Woodstock Festival Is Born.” Courtesy Bethel Woods Center for the Arts.
Courtesy Bethel Woods Center for the Arts.
  • “Pullman Porters: From Service to Civil Rights”, by Stephen Kercher (pp. 117–20) Read online >
  • Olde Mill House Gallery and Printing Museum, by Tammy Gordon (pp. 120–23) Read online >
  • “The Psychedelic Experience: Rock Posters from the San Francisco Bay Area, 1965—1971”, by Steve Boyd-Smith (pp. 123–27) Read online >
  • The Museum at Bethel Woods Center for the Arts: The Story of the Sixties and Woodstock, by Daniel Spock (pp. 127–31) Read online >
  • Tampa Bay History Center, by Mark Howard Long (pp. 131–35) Read online >
  • United States Immigration Station, Angel Island Detention Barracks, by Patrick Ettinger (pp. 135–40) Read online >

Book Reviews

June 2010, Vol. 97 No. 1

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Allen, Until the Last Man Comes Home: pows, mias, and the Unending Vietnam War, by Robert K. Brigham
  • Altschuler and Blumin, The gi Bill: A New Deal for Veterans, by Hani Morgan
  • Anderson and Greene, eds., Perspectives on Milwaukee’s Past, by Roger D. Simon
  • Bailyn and Denault, eds., Soundings in Atlantic History: Latent Structures and Intellectual Currents, 1500–1830, by Nicholas Canny
  • Baker, What Reconstruction Meant: Historical Memory in the American South, by Peter S. Carmichael
  • Ballantyne and Burton, eds., Moving Subjects: Gender, Mobility, and Intimacy in an Age of Global Empire, by Deborah Cohen
  • Balogh, A Government Out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth-Century America, by Williamjames Hull Hoffer
  • Barrow, Nature’s Ghosts: Confronting Extinction from the Age of Jefferson to the Age of Ecology, by Bron Taylor
  • Beeman, Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution, by Sandra F. VanBurkleo
  • Beito and Beito, Black Maverick: T. R. M. Howard’s Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power, by Patrick Damien Jones
  • Berry, And Justice for All: The United States Commission on Civil Rights and the Continuing Struggle for Freedom in America, by Robert L. Harris Jr.
  • Billias, American Constitutionalism Heard round the World, 1776–1989: A Global Perspective, by Johann N. Neem
  • Bittel, Mary Putnam Jacobi and the Politics of Medicine in Nineteenth-Century America, by Susan E. Cayleff
  • Boehm, Making a Way out of No Way: African American Women and the Second Great Migration, by Laurie B. Green
  • Bonner, Mastering America: Southern Slaveholders and the Crisis of American Nationhood, by Jean B. Lee
  • Bradburn, The Citizenship Revolution: Politics and the Creation of the American Union, 1774–1804, by John P. Kaminski
  • Bradley, Harlem vs. Columbia University: Black Student Power in the Late 1960s, by Blake Slonecker
  • Bradley, Vietnam at War, by Ronald B. Frankum Jr.
  • Brasseaux, Cajun Breakdown: The Emergence of an American-Made Music, by Michael T. Bertrand
  • Brooks, Boomers: The Cold-War Generation Grows Up, by Andrew Hartman
  • Canaday, The Straight State: Sexuality and Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America, by Julian Carter
  • Carter, The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement: Civil Rights and the Johnson Administration, 1965–1968, by Gordon K. Mantler
  • Cleves, The Reign of Terror in America: Visions of Violence from Anti-Jacobinism to Antislavery, by Matthew Rainbow Hale
  • Cooper and McCardell, eds., In the Cause of Liberty: How the Civil War Redefined American Ideals, by William L. Barney
  • Corbould, Becoming African Americans: Black Public Life in Harlem, 1919–1939, by Kenneth R. Janken
  • Costa and Kahn, Heroes and Cowards: The Social Face of War, by Jerry Thompson
  • Craig and Logevall, America’s Cold War: The Politics of Insecurity, by Melvyn P. Leffler
  • Curtis and Sigler, eds., The New Black Gods: Arthur Huff Fauset and the Study of African American Religions, by Keith D. Miller
  • Danziger, Great Lakes Indian Accommodation and Resistance during the Early Reservation Years, 1850–1900, by David R. M. Beck
  • Dattel, Cotton and Race in the Making of America: The Human Costs of Economic Power, by T. Norman Van Cott
  • Davis and Trani, Distorted Mirrors: Americans and Their Relations with Russia and China in the Twentieth Century, by Charles J. Weeks
  • Dennis, Licentious Gotham: Erotic Publishing and Its Prosecution in Nineteenth-Century New York, by Brian Donovan
  • Diamond, Mean Streets: Chicago Youths and the Everyday Struggle for Empowerment in the Multiracial City, 1908–1969, by Moira Hinderer
  • Dierks, In My Power: Letter Writing and Communications in Early America, by Mark Garrett Longaker
  • Dollar, Whiteaker, and Dickinson, eds., Sister States, Enemy States: The Civil War in Kentucky and Tennessee, by Earl J. Hess
  • Edwards and Steers, eds., The Lincoln Assassination: The Evidence, by Darrel E. Bigham
  • Evans, Open Wound: The Long View of Race in America, by Stephen Steinberg
  • Feimster, Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching, by Bruce E. Baker
  • Finlay, Growing American Rubber: Strategic Plants and the Politics of National Security, by Gerard J. Fitzgerald
  • Flad and Griffen, Main Street to Mainframes: Landscape and Social Change in Poughkeepsie, by Jon C. Teaford
  • Flannery, The Glass House Boys of Pittsburgh: Law, Technology, and Child Labor, by Edward Slavishak
  • Ford, Deliver Us from Evil: The Slavery Question in the Old South, by Peter Kolchin
  • Forman-Brunell, Babysitter: An American History, by Lynn Y. Weiner
  • Freidenfelds, The Modern Period: Menstruation in Twentieth-Century America, by Heather Munro Prescott
  • Ganz, Why David Sometimes Wins: Leadership, Organization, and Strategy in the California Farm Worker Movement, by Errol Wayne Stevens
  • Geary, Radical Ambition: C. Wright Mills, the Left, and American Social Thought, by Jonathan Sterne
  • Gienow-Hecht, Sound Diplomacy: Music and Emotions in Transatlantic Relations, 1850–1920, by Nicholas J. Cull
  • Gordy, Finding the Lost Year: What Happened When Little Rock Closed Its Public Schools, by James D. Ross
  • Graves, And They Were Wonderful Teachers: Florida’s Purge of Gay and Lesbian Teachers, by Susan K. Freeman
  • Gualtieri, Between Arab and White: Race and Ethnicity in the Early Syrian American Diaspora, by Anouar Majid
  • Hagopian, The Vietnam War in American Memory: Veterans, Memorials, and the Politics of Healing, by G. Kurt Piehler
  • Hahn, The Political Worlds of Slavery and Freedom, by John Craig Hammond
  • Hall, Uncommon Defense: Indian Allies in the Black Hawk War, by Patrick J. Jung
  • Hansen, Picturing Medical Progress from Pasteur to Polio: A History of Mass Media Images and Popular Attitudes in America, by Martin Halliwell
  • Harris and Sadler, The Secret War in El Paso: Mexican Revolutionary Intrigue, 1906–1920, by Oscar J. Martinez
  • Heap, Slumming: Sexual and Racial Encounters in American Nightlife, 1885–1940, by Allison McCracken
  • Herndon and Murray, eds., Children Bound to Labor: The Pauper Apprentice System in Early America, by Gail S. Murray
  • Hodgdon, Manhood in the Age of Aquarius: Masculinity in Two Countercultural Communities, 1965–83, by K. A. Cuordileone
  • Holton, Abigail Adams, by Lisa M Burns
  • Hornsby, Black Power in Dixie: A Political History of African Americans in Atlanta, by Timothy B. Tyson
  • Huebner, The Warrior Image: Soldiers in American Culture from the Second World War to the Vietnam Era, by G. Kurt Piehler
  • Jackson, Jr., Booker T. Washington and the Struggle against White Supremacy: The Southern Educational Tours, 1908–1912, by Michael Rudolph West
  • Jefferson, Fighting for Hope: African American Troops of the 93rd Infantry Division in World War II and Postwar America, by Gerald Early
  • Johnson, The Liberty Party, 1840–1848: Antislavery Third-Party Politics in the United States, by Vernon L. Volpe
  • K’Meyer, Civil Rights in the Gateway to the South: Louisville, Kentucky, 1945–1980, by James R. Ralph Jr.
  • Kelman, Station Identification: A Cultural History of Yiddish Radio in the United States, by Cynthia Meyers
  • Kemper, College Football and American Culture in the Cold War Era, by Gregory J. Kaliss
  • Kenny, Peaceable Kingdom Lost: The Paxton Boys and the Destruction of William Penn’s Holy Experiment, by Matthew C. Ward
  • Klooster, Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A Comparative History, by Alyssa Sepinwall
  • Koslow, Cultivating Health: Los Angeles Women and Public Health Reform, by Eileen Boris
  • Kusmer and Trotter, eds., African American Urban History since World War II, by Komozi Woodard
  • Kyvig, The Age of Impeachment: American Constitutional Culture since 1960, by Dana D. Nelson
  • Langdon, Caught in the Crossfire: Adrian Scott and the Politics of Americanism in 1940s Hollywood, by Tony Shaw
  • Lantzer, “Prohibition Is Here to Stay”: The Reverend Edward S. Shumaker and the Dry Crusade in America, by Joseph F. Spillane
  • Lears, Rebirth of a Nation: The Making of Modern America, 1877–1920, by Susan J. Pearson
  • Leavitt, Make Room for Daddy: The Journey from Waiting Room to Birthing Room, by Rickie Solinger
  • Lemire, Black Walden: Slavery and Its Aftermath in Concord, Massachusetts, by George A. Lévesque
  • Levenstein, A Movement without Marches: African American Women and the Politics of Poverty in Postwar Philadelphia, by Laurie B. Green
  • Ling, ed., Asian America: Forming New Communities, Expanding Boundaries, by Lon Kurashige
  • Little, You Must Be from the North: Southern White Women in the Memphis Civil Rights Movement, by Francoise N. Hamlin
  • Loane, Following the Drum: Women at the Valley Forge Encampment, by Caroline Cox
  • Lopes, Demanding Respect: The Evolution of the American Comic Book, by Ian Gordon
  • Lynch-Brennan, The Irish Bridget: Irish Immigrant Women in Domestic Service in America, 1840–1930, by Malcolm Campbell
  • Magra, The Fisherman’s Cause: Atlantic Commerce and Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution, by Cathy Matson
  • Majewski, Modernizing a Slave Economy: The Economic Vision of the Confederate Nation, by Frank J. Byrne
  • Malone, Between Freedom and Bondage: Race, Party, and Voting Rights in the Antebellum North, by Stephen E. Maizlish
  • Mason, The Once and Future New York: Historic Preservation and the Modern City, by Mary Beth Betts
  • McCarthy, Making Milwaukee Mightier: Planning and the Politics of Growth, 1910–1960, by Roger D. Simon
  • McCoy and Scarano, eds., Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of the Modern American State, by Hiroshi Kitamura
  • McCurdy, Citizen Bachelors: Manhood and the Creation of the United States, by Albrecht Koschnik
  • McGlone, John Brown’s War against Slavery, by Tilden G. Edelstein
  • McGreevy, Stairway to Empire: Lockport, the Erie Canal, and the Shaping of America, by Carol Sheriff
  • McIlvenna, A Very Mutinous People: The Struggle for North Carolina, 1660–1713, by L. Scott Philyaw
  • McKanna, Court-Martial of Apache Kid: The Renegade of Renegades, by Mark Ellis
  • McMahon, Dean Acheson and the Creation of an American World Order, by Douglas Brinkley
  • Meacham, Every Home a Distillery: Alcohol, Gender, and Technology in the Colonial Chesapeake, by Susan Clair Imbarrato
  • Micale, Hysterical Men: The Hidden History of Male Nervous Illness, by Regina Morantz-Sanchez
  • Milam, Not a Gentleman’s War: An Inside View of Junior Officers in the Vietnam War, by John Darrell Sherwood
  • Miller, Remembering Scottsboro: The Legacy of an Infamous Trial, by Carroll Van West
  • Miller, Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South, by Randall J. Stephens
  • Naylor, African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to Citizens, by Daniel Cobb
  • Noll, The New Shape of World Christianity: How American Experience Reflects Global Faith, by Joel A. Carpenter
  • Norton, Rebellious Younger Brother: Oneida Leadership and Diplomacy, 1750–1800, by William Anthony Starna
  • Norwood, The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Conflict on American Campuses, by Kirsten Fermaglich
  • Olsson, Los Angeles before Hollywood: Journalism and American Film Culture, 1905 to 1915, by Samantha Barbas
  • Orenic, On the Ground: Labor Struggle in the American Airline Industry, by George E. Hopkins
  • Osselaer, Winning Their Place: Arizona Women in Politics, 1883–1950, by Melanie Gustafson
  • Penner, Newlyweds on Tour: Honeymooning in Nineteenth-Century America, by Patrick W. O’Neil
  • Pfister, The Yale Indian: The Education of Henry Roe Cloud, by Margaret Connell Szasz
  • Picard, Making the American Mouth: Dentists and Public Health in the Twentieth Century, by Daniel M. Fox
  • Prados, Vietnam: The History of an Unwinnable War, 1945–1975, by David L. Anderson
  • Price, Judge Richard S. Arnold: A Legacy of Justice on the Federal Bench, by Walter F. Pratt Jr.
  • Radosh and Radosh, A Safe Haven: Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel, by John Snetsinger
  • Raphael, Founders: The People Who Brought You a Nation, by Terri Halperin
  • Richardson and Jones, Education for Liberation: The American Missionary Association and African Americans, 1890 to the Civil Rights Movement, by Paul E. Mertz
  • Roberts, Infectious Fear: Politics, Disease, and the Health Effects of Segregation, by Nancy Tomes
  • Rose, Psychology and Selfhood in the Segregated South, by Bethany L. Johnson
  • Rushing, Memphis and the Paradox of Place: Globalization in the American South, by Kimberly K. Little
  • Ryan, Imaginary Friends: Representing Quakers in American Culture, 1650–1950, by Ryan P. Jordan
  • Sanjek, Gray Panthers, by Thomas R. Cole
  • Schoultz, That Infernal Little Cuban Republic: The United States and the Cuban Revolution, by Samuel Farber
  • Schweik, The Ugly Laws: Disability in Public, by Alan M. Kraut
  • Schweitzer, When Broadway Was the Runway: Theater, Fashion, and American Culture, by Mary W. Blanchard
  • Scott-Smith, Networks of Empire: The U.S. State Department’s Foreign Leader Program in the Netherlands, France, and Britain, 1950–70, by Robert Dean
  • Seay, Hanging between Heaven and Earth: Capital Crime, Execution Preaching, and Theology in Early New England, by Tanya Mears
  • SenGupta, From Slavery to Poverty: The Racial Origins of Welfare in New York, 1840–1918, by Gabriel Loiacono
  • Shogan, No Sense of Decency: The Army-McCarthy Hearings; A Demagogue Falls and Television Takes Charge of American Politics, by Richard M. Fried
  • Skillen, The Nation’s Largest Landlord: The Bureau of Land Management in the American West, by R. McGreggor Cawley
  • Smith, Captive Arizona, 1851–1900, by Fernando Operé
  • Smith-Pryor, Property Rites: The Rhinelander Trial, Passing, and the Protection of Whiteness, by A. Cheree Carlson
  • Stapleford, The Cost of Living in America: A Political History of Economic Statistics, 1880–2000, by Lawrence H. Officer
  • Suisman, Selling Sounds: The Commercial Revolution in American Music, by Joel Dinerstein
  • Sullivan, Lift Every Voice: The naacp and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement, by Clayborne Carson
  • Summers, A Dangerous Stir: Fear, Paranoia, and the Making of Reconstruction, by George C. Rable
  • Taylor, Acts of Conscience: World War II, Mental Institutions, and Religious Objectors, by James W. Trent
  • Thuesen, Predestination: The American Career of a Contentious Doctrine, by Jon Diefenthaler
  • Tiedemann, ed., The Other Loyalists: Ordinary People, Royalism, and the Revolution in the Middle Colonies, 1763–1787, by Sheldon S. Cohen
  • Tomblin, Bluejackets and Contrabands: African Americans and the Union Navy, by Spencer C. Tucker
  • Tucker, Strait Talk: United States–Taiwan Relations and the Crisis with China, by Mary Ann Heiss
  • Usner, Indian Work: Language and Livelihood in Native American History, by James Taylor Carson
  • Varzally, Making a Non-white America: Californians Coloring outside Ethnic Lines, 1925–1955, by Elliott R. Barkan
  • Wade-Lewis, Lorenzo Dow Turner: Father of Gullah Studies, by J. William Harris
  • Waldstreicher, Slavery’s Constitution: From Revolution to Ratification, by Douglas R. Egerton
  • Walls, The Passage to Cosmos: Alexander von Humboldt and the Shaping of America, by Sara Stidstone Gronim
  • Washington, Sojourner Truth’s America, by Barbara Krauthamer
  • Waugh and Gallagher, eds., Wars within a War: Controversy and Conflict over the American Civil War, by Gordon McKinney
  • Waugh, U. S. Grant: American Hero, American Myth, by Jim Cullen
  • Wigger, American Saint: Francis Asbury and the Methodists, by Terry D. Bilhartz
  • Wilson, Communities Left Behind: The Area Redevelopment Administration, 1945–1965, by Thomas Kiffmeyer
  • Wong, Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel, by Eric Gardner
  • Work, Lincoln’s Political Generals, by Ethan S. Rafuse
  • Zabin, Dangerous Economies: Status and Commerce in Imperial New York, by Cathy Matson
  • Zimmerman, Small Wonder: The Little Red Schoolhouse in History and Memory, by Polly Welts Kaufman

Movie Reviews

  • Amelia, by Judith E. Smith (pp. 274–77) Read online >
  • The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers, by Stephen J. Whitfield (pp. 277–79) Read online >
  • Taking Woodstock, by Glenn C. Altschuler and Robert O. Summers (pp. 279–81) Read online >
  • Capitalism: A Love Story, by Andrew J. Douglas (pp. 281—82) Read online >
  • Hollywood Chinese: The Chinese in American Feature Films, by Christina Klein (pp. 282–84) Read online >
  • Joan Baez: How Sweet the Sound, by Paul Buhle (pp. 284–85) Read online >
  • The People v. Leo Frank, by Matthew H. Bernstein (pp. 285–87) Read online >

Web Site Reviews

Web Site reviews are available without a subscription.

  • The Presidential Elections, 1860–1912, by Ballard Campbell (pp. 288–89) Read online >
  • Museum of the City of New York: Byron Company Collection On Line, by Suzanne Wasserman (pp. 289–90) Read online >
  • Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and Its Neighboorhoods, 1880–1963 and
    Jane Addams Hull-House Museum by Meg Meneghel MacDonald (pp. 290–91) Read online >
  • The American Family Immigration History Center by Hasia Diner and Shira Kohn (pp. 291–92) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

View “Recent Scholarship” listing online >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

cover image

On the cover:

On December 19, 1815, in Washington, D.C., the slave Anna jumped out of the garret window of a three-story brick building and survived. Her story illustrates how family separation and slave suicide were linked in abolitionist literature: “They brought me away with two of my children, and wouldn’t let me see my husband. They didn’t sell my husband, and I didn’t want to go. I was so confus’d and distracted that I didn’t know hardly what I was about, but I didn’t want to go, and I jumped out of the window. But I am sorry now that I did it. They have carried my children off with ’em to Carolina.” Jesse Torrey, A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery, in the United States, with Reflections on the Practicability of Restoring the Moral Rights of the Slave, without Impairing the Legal Privileges of the Possessor (Philadelphia, 1817), 43. Courtesy Huntington Library, San Marino, California. Terri L. Snyder, “Suicide, Slavery, and Memory in North America,” p. 39.

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