Journal of American History

Presidential Address

After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Ecumenical Protestantism and the Modern American Encounter with Diversity

Courtesy Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, Mass.

While scholars have focused on the rise and conservative influence of evangelical Protestants in American life since World War II, the liberalizing function of ecumenical Protestants has been obscured. In his presidential address to the 2011 Organization of American Historians annual meeting, David A. Hollinger insists that the flourishing of evangelicals and the notorious membership decline of ecumenicals constitute a single dialectic driven by contrasting dispositions toward ethnoracial, sexual, religious, and cultural difference. More sensitive than their evangelical rivals to the diversity of American society and of the globe, the ecumenicals abandoned a series of diversity-resisting ideas that remained popular with the white public that was the chief constituency for both types of Protestantism. Evangelicals then energetically espoused these same ideas—such as the notion of a “Christian America”—to appeal to Americans dubious of the accommodations with diversity that ecumenists enacted in concert with secular liberals. But just as the United States fell largely into line behind the civil rights politics of the Democrats (even while the South became a Republican stronghold), so too did the United States become increasingly comfortable with the liberal ideas for which the ecumenical churches had been prominent vehicles (while Protestantism itself became an evangelical stronghold). The ecumenists lost most of Protestantism, but they won most of the United States. (pp. 21–48) Read online >


The Trouble with Gay Rights: Race and the Politics of Sexual Orientation in Philadelphia, 1969–1982

Courtesy Marc Segal and the Philadelphia Gay News.

The gay rights movement in America is popularly associated with the decriminalization of sodomy or equal access to marriage; textbooks describing the movement may mention the Stonewall riots in 1969 or Anita Bryant’s crusade against homosexuality, but few acknowledge that, at the same time, dozens of cities and towns debated and passed measures to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. In 1974 and again in 1982, Philadelphia’s gays and lesbians mobilized for such a bill and unexpectedly encountered the politics of race. Drawing on the transcripts of the city council hearings, community press, and organizational records, Kevin J. Mumford traces the competing arguments and strategies of a range of groups, from early gay liberationists to conservative African American clergy to black gay men, for and against sexual equality. Mumford illustrates not only that gay and lesbian activists have had to struggle with the legacy of the civil rights movement but also that gay identities may have proliferated and become more coherent as a result. (pp. 49–72) Read online >

Round Table

Since September 11, 2001, historians have struggled to make sense of terrorism’s role in the American past. Beverly Gage offers an article-length overview of terrorism in American history, emphasizing its contested but significant role in shaping the nation’s politics and culture. The essay examines current historiographical debates within terrorism history, suggesting new directions for research as well as some of the limitations and difficulties inherent to the subject. It also outlines how professors and secondary teachers might integrate the study of terrorism into survey courses. As we approach the tenth anniversary of 9/11, the article suggests that American historians think anew about a subject often discussed but little understood in the fractious world of twenty-first- century politics. Following Gage’s article, the terrorism scholars Dipak K. Gupta, Jeffrey Kaplan, Ann Larabee, D. J. Mulloy, David C. Rapoport, and Jeremy Varon offer perspectives on the state of the field.

  • Terrorism and the American Experience: A State of the Field
    Beverly Gage (pp. 73–94) Read online >
  • Terrorism, History, and Historians: A View from a Social Scientist
    Dipak K. Gupta (pp. 95–100) Read online >
  • History and Terrorism
    Jeffrey Kaplan (pp. 101–5) Read online >
  • Why Historians Should Exercise Caution When Using the Word “Terrorism”
    Ann Larabee (pp. 106–10) Read online >
  • Is There a “Field”? And if There Isn’t, Should We Be Worried about It?
    D. J. Mulloy (pp. 111–14) Read online >
  • Reflections on “Terrorism and the American Experience”
    David C. Rapoport (pp. 115–20) Read online >
  • A History of Violence and the Myth of American Exceptionalism
    Jeremy Varon (pp. 121–4) Read online >
  • A Response
    Beverly Gage (pp. 125–27) Read online >

Exhibition Reviews

933 Er
Courtesy Indiana Historical Society.
  • “Introduction,” by Benjamin Filene and Brian Horrigan (p. 128–9) Read online >
  • “You Are There and the Indiana Experience,” by John Dichtl (pp. 129–33) Read online >
  • The Art of the Americas Wing, by Matthew Pratt Guterl (p. 134–38) Read online >
  • International Spy Museum, by John Philipp Baesler (pp. 138–43) Read online >
  • “For All the World to See: Visual Culture and the Struggle for Civil Rights,” by Joy L. Bivins Read online >(pp. 143–46)
  • National Museum of American Jewish History, by David Farber (pp. 146–50) Read online >

Book Reviews

June 2011, Vol. 98 No. 1

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Anderson, Agitations: Ideologies and Strategies in African American Politics, by Hanes Walton Jr.
  • Atkins, Covering for the Bosses: Labor and the Southern Press, by Charles D. Chamberlain
  • Banker, Appalachians All: East Tennesseans and the Elusive History of an American Region, by Martin Crawford
  • Banner-Haley, From Du Bois to Obama: African American Intellectuals in the Public Forum, by Zachery R. Williams
  • Bellesiles, 1877: America’s Year of Living Violently, by Robert E. Weir
  • Benbow, Leading Them to the Promised Land: Woodrow Wilson, Covenant Theology, and the Mexican Revolution, 1913–1915, by Trygve Throntveit
  • Bodnar, The “Good War” in American Memory, by Michael Kammen
  • Boles and Hall, eds., Seeing Jefferson Anew: In His Time and Ours, by David Waldstreicher
  • Breen, American Insurgents, American Patriots: The Revolution of the People, by Terry Bouton
  • Buck, Religious Myths and Visions of America: How Minority Faiths Redefined America’s World Role, by Richard Kyle
  • Burstein and Isenberg, Madison and Jefferson, by R. B. Bernstein
  • Burton-Rose, Guerrilla usa: The George Jackson Brigade and the Anticapitalist Underground of the 1970s, by Kerry Taylor
  • Calhoun, From Bloody Shirt to Full Dinner Pail: The Transformation of Politics and Governance in the Gilded Age, by Robert W. Cherny
  • Carlos and Lewis, Commerce by a Frozen Sea: Native Americans and the European Fur Trade, by Jon Parmenter
  • Carriker, Urban Farming in the West: A New Deal Experiment in Subsistence Homesteads, by Karen R. Merrill
  • Castillo, Cold War on the Home Front: The Soft Power of Midcentury Design, by Ron Robin
  • Clark, Creating the College Man: American Mass Magazines and Middle-Class Manhood, 1890–1915, by Thomas Augst
  • Clements, The Life of Herbert Hoover: Imperfect Visionary, 1918–1928, by Vincent Gaddis
  • Cloyd, Haunted by Atrocity: Civil War Prisons in American Memory, by J. Michael Martinez
  • Cohen, Duke Ellington’s America, by Iain Anderson
  • Cole, The Great American University: Its Rise to Preeminence, Its Indispensable National Role, and Why It Must Be Protected, by John R. Thelin
  • Connolly, Seated by the Sea: The Maritime History of Portland, Maine, and Its Irish Longshoremen, by James T. Fisher
  • Cooper, Universal Women: Filmmaking and Institutional Change in Early Hollywood, by Kathleen Feeley
  • Cowie, Stayin’ Alive: The 1970s and the Last Days of the Working Class, by Judith Stein
  • Cox, The Lumberman’s Frontier: Three Centuries of Land Use, Society, and Change in America’s Forests, by Char Miller
  • Crawford, The Having of Negroes Is Become a Burden: The Quaker Struggle to Free Slaves in Revolutionary North Carolina, by Jean Soderlund
  • Cumings, The Korean War: A History, by James I. Matray
  • Cunningham, Cowboy Conservatism: Texas and the Rise of the Modern Right, by Paul V. Murphy
  • Dagbovie, African American History Reconsidered, by Robert L. Harris Jr.
  • Dolin, Fur, Fortune, and Empire: The Epic History of the Fur Trade in America, by Ann M. Carlos
  • Duane, Suffering Childhood in Early America: Violence, Race, and the Making of the Child Victim, by Catherine Jones
  • Dunn, Roosevelt’s Purge: How fdr Fought to Change the Democratic Party, by Peri E. Arnold
  • Ebel, Faith in the Fight: Religion and the American Soldier in the Great War, by Stephen L. Longenecker
  • Fairfield, The Public and Its Possibilities: Triumph and Tragedies in the American City, by Val Marie Johnson
  • Falk, Upstaging the Cold War: American Dissent and Cultural Diplomacy, 1940–1960, by Walter L. Hixson
  • Fisk, Working Knowledge: Employee Innovation and the Rise of Corporate Intellectual Property, 1800–1930, by Herbert Hovenkamp
  • Fleming, Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control, by Bernard Mergen
  • Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, by Bruce Levine
  • Foote, The Gentlemen and the Roughs: Manhood, Honor, and Violence in the Union Army, by Keith P. Wilson
  • Ford, Soldier Field: A Stadium and Its City, by Daniel A. Nathan
  • Frank, Constituent Moments: Enacting the People in Postrevolutionary America, by John L. Brooke
  • Gehring, Steve McQueen: The Great Escape, by Abigail Cheever
  • Giardina, Freedom for Women: Forging the Women’s Liberation Movement, 1953–1970, by Kimberly Wilmot Voss
  • Glenn and Teles, eds., Conservatism and American Political Development, by Laura J. Gifford
  • Gordon-Reed, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family, by Brenda E. Stevenson
  • Graves and Smith, eds., Charlotte, NC: The Global Evolution of a New South City, by Marko Maunula
  • Green, Third-Party Matters: Politics, Presidents, and Third Parties in American History, by Mark Hubbard
  • Green, We Cannot Remain Silent: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States, by Stephen M. Streeter
  • Grubbs, Secular Missionaries: Americans and African Development in the 1960s, by James H. Meriwether
  • Guridy, Forging Diaspora: Afro-Cubans and African Americans in a World of Empire and Jim Crow, by Enver Casimir
  • Hall, Wanted: The Outlaw in American Visual Culture, by David E. Ruth
  • Hall, Zamumo’s Gifts: Indian-European Exchange in the Colonial Southeast, by Daniel H. Usner Jr.
  • Halliday, Habeas Corpus: From England to Empire, by John V. Orth
  • Hancock, Oceans of Wine: Madeira and the Emergence of American Trade and Taste, by Zara Anishanslin
  • Harmon, Rich Indians: Native People and the Problem of Wealth in American History, by Nancy Shoemaker
  • Hart, Building Charleston: Town and Society in the Eighteenth-Century British Atlantic World, by Bernard Herman
  • Hawkins, American Iconographic: National Geographic, Global Culture, and the Visual Imagination, by John Nerone
  • Haynes, The Mississippi Territory and the Southwest Frontier, 1795–1817, by Gary Clayton Anderson
  • Hench, Books as Weapons: Propaganda, Publishing, and the Battle for Global Markets in the Era of World War II, by Kenneth A. Osgood
  • Hernández, Migra! A History of the U.S. Border Patrol, by Eric V. Meeks
  • Hewitt, ed., No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism, by Kathryn Kish Sklar
  • Hiltzik, Colossus: Hoover Dam and the Making of the American Century, by Donald C. Jackson
  • Hornblum, The Invisible Harry Gold: The Man Who Gave the Soviets the Atom Bomb, by David S. Foglesong
  • Hudson, Creek Paths and Federal Roads: Indians, Settlers, and Slaves and the Making of the American South, by Andrew K. Frank
  • Hurley, Beyond Preservation: Using Public History to Revitalize Inner Cities, by Jennifer Dickey
  • Immerman, Empire for Liberty: A History of American Imperialism from Benjamin Franklin to Paul Wolfowitz, by Paul T. McCartney
  • Janzen and Stanton, The Hutterites in North America, by Steven D. Reschly
  • Jarvis, The Brothertown Nation of Indians: Land Ownership and Nationalism in Early America, 1740–1840, by Linford D. Fisher
  • Jeffers, Norman Podhoretz: A Biography, by Gregory L. Schneider
  • Jones, After Hiroshima: The United States, Race, and Nuclear Weapons in Asia, 1945–1965, by Sean Malloy
  • Juricek, Colonial Georgia and the Creeks: Anglo-Indian Diplomacy on the Southern Frontier, 1733–1763, by Angela Pulley Hudson
  • Kalman, Right Star Rising: A New Politics, 1974–1980, by Michael Kazin
  • Kaufman, Hired Hands or Human Resources? Case Studies of hrm Programs and Practices in Early American Industry, by James Hoopes
  • Kearney, Nassau Plantation: The Evolution of a Texas-German Slave Plantation, by Richard C. Rohrs
  • Kelley, Right to Ride: Streetcar Boycotts and African American Citizenship in the Era of Plessy v. Ferguson, by Kenneth W. Goings
  • Kessner, The Flight of the Century: Charles Lindbergh and the Rise of American Aviation, by William F. Trimble
  • Kidd, God of Liberty: A Religious History of the American Revolution, by Mark David Hall
  • Kim, Ends of Empire: Asian American Critique and the Cold War, by Anne L. Foster
  • Klinghard, The Nationalization of American Political Parties, 1880–1896, by Charles W. Calhoun
  • Korstad and Leloudis, To Right These Wrongs: The North Carolina Fund and the Battle to End Poverty and Inequality in 1960s America, by Susan Youngblood Ashmore
  • Kostlevy, Holy Jumpers: Evangelicals and Radicals in Progressive Era America, by James R. Goff Jr.
  • Krall, Proving Up: Domesticating Land in U.S. History, by Richard Judd
  • Lause, The Antebellum Crisis and America’s First Bohemians, by Ronald J. Zboray
  • Lavergne, Before Brown: Heman Marion Sweatt, Thurgood Marshall, and the Long Road to Justice, by Leland Ware
  • Lembcke, Hanoi Jane: War, Sex, and Fantasies of Betrayal, by Katherine Kinney
  • Lowery, Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, Identity, and the Making of a Nation, by Neal Salisbury
  • Lyons, X-Marks: Native Signatures of Assent, by Raymond J. DeMallie Jr.
  • Marvel, The Great Task Remaining: The Third Year of Lincoln’s War, by Matthew Norman
  • McCarthy, The Citizen Machine: Governing by Television in 1950s America, by David Goodman
  • Mello, New York Longshoremen: Class and Power on the Docks, by Peter Cole
  • Meyers, The Genius and the Goddess: Arthur Miller and Marilyn Monroe, by Margot A. Henriksen
  • Miller, Kodiak Kreol: Communities of Empire in Early Russian America, by Sergei Kan
  • Montejano, Quixote’s Soldiers: A Local History of the Chicano Movement, 1966–1981, by Marc Simon Rodriguez
  • Morgan, Land of Big Rivers: French and Indian Illinois, 1699–1778, by Theodore J. Karamanski
  • Murphy, American Slavery, Irish Freedom: Abolition, Immigrant Citizenship, and the Transatlantic Movement for Irish Repeal, by Mary C. Kelly
  • Murphy, Shadowing the White Man’s Burden: U.S. Imperialism and the Problem of the Color Line, by Matthew Pratt Guterl
  • Nachman, Right Here on Our Stage Tonight! Ed Sullivan’s America, by Ethan Thompson
  • Nelson and Rudolph, eds., Education and the Culture of Print in Modern America, by Christopher P. Loss
  • Newell, Constructing Lives at Mission San Francisco: Native Californians and Hispanic Colonists, 1776–1821, by Michael J. González
  • Nye, When the Lights Went Out: A History of Blackouts in America, by Robert D. Friedel
  • Osgood and Frank, eds., Selling War in a Media Age: The Presidency and Public Opinion in the American Century, by J. Michael Hogan
  • Otter, Philadelphia Stories: America’s Literature of Race and Freedom, by Justine S. Murison
  • Pahl, Empire of Sacrifice: The Religious Origins of American Violence, by Jonathan H. Ebel
  • Parrish, Citizen Rauh: An American Liberal’s Life in Law and Politics, by Kevin Boyle
  • Patterson, Natalie Curtis Burlin: A Life in Native and African American Music, by Clyde Ellis
  • Pauketat, Cahokia: Ancient America’s Great City on the Mississippi, by Cameron B. Wesson
  • Pole, Contract and Consent: Representation and the Jury in Anglo-American Legal History, by Polly J. Price
  • Portelli, They Say in Harlan County: An Oral History, by Kenneth Fones-Wolf
  • Rakove, Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America, by Terry Bouton
  • Rawson, Eden on the Charles: The Making of Boston, by Lawrence W. Kennedy
  • Reagan, Dangerous Pregnancies: Mothers, Disabilities, and Abortion in Modern America, by Margaret Marsh
  • Reeves-Ellington, Sklar, and Shemo, eds., Competing Kingdoms: Women, Mission, Nation, and the American Protestant Empire, 1812–1960, by Andrew Witmer
  • Regester, African American Actresses: The Struggle for Visibility, 1900–1960, by Jill Watts
  • Ridner, A Town In-Between: Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and the Early Mid-Atlantic Interior, by Paul B. Moyer
  • Riser, Defying Disfranchisement: Black Voting Rights Activism in the Jim Crow South, 1890–1908, by Christopher Malone
  • Robertson, The Passport in America: The History of a Document, by William W. Stowe
  • Rockwell, Indian Affairs and the Administrative State in the Nineteenth Century, by John R. Wunder
  • Rodger, Champagne Charlie and Pretty Jemima: Variety Theater in the Nineteenth Century, by Don B. Wilmeth
  • Roll, Spirit of Rebellion: Labor and Religion in the New Cotton South, by Glenn Feldman
  • Roy, Reds, Whites, and Blues: Social Movements, Folk Music, and Race in the United States, by Robert V. Wells
  • Rubio, There’s Always Work at the Post Office: African American Postal Workers and the Fight for Jobs, Justice, and Equality, by Eric Arnesen
  • Rutkoff and Scott, Fly Away: The Great African American Cultural Migrants, by Spencer Crew
  • Sadosky, Nicolaisen, Onuf, and O’Shaughnessy, eds., Old World, New World: America and Europe in the Age of Jefferson, by Troy O. Bickham
  • Sanders, Seattle and the Roots of Urban Sustainability: Inventing Ecotopia, by R. Bruce Stephenson
  • Schwalm, Emancipation’s Diaspora: Race and Reconstruction in the Upper Midwest, by Davarian L. Baldwin
  • Shandler, Jews, God, and Videotape: Religion and Media in America, by Menahem Blondheim
  • Shesol, Supreme Power: Franklin Roosevelt vs. the Supreme Court, by Kevin J. McMahon
  • Shields, ed., Material Culture in Anglo-America: Regional Identity and Urbanity in the Tidewater, Lowcountry, and Caribbean, by A. Glenn Crothers
  • Sicherman, Well-Read Lives: How Books Inspired a Generation of American Women, by Leslie Ellen Petty
  • Silverman, Begin Again: A Biography of John Cage, by Julia L. Foulkes
  • Sklaroff, Black Culture and the New Deal: The Quest for Civil Rights in the Roosevelt Era, by Susan Curtis
  • Slap, ed., Reconstructing Appalachia: The Civil War’s Aftermath, by Robert S. Weise
  • Smith, The Look of Catholics: Portrayals in Popular Culture from the Great Depression to the Cold War, by Nancy L. Roberts
  • Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, by Fay A. Yarbrough
  • Solomon, Disappearing Tricks: Silent Film, Houdini, and the New Magic of the Twentieth Century, by Lea Jacobs
  • Span, From Cotton Field to Schoolhouse: African American Education in Mississippi, 1862–1875, by Debra Reid
  • Stansell, The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present, by Nancy A. Hewitt
  • Taylor, Thinking America: New England Intellectuals and the Varieties of American Identity, by Mary Kupiec Cayton
  • Testi, trans. by Mazhar, Capture the Flag: The Stars and Stripes in American History, by Scot M. Guenter
  • Thomas, Puerto Rican Citizen: History and Political Identity in Twentieth-Century New York City, by Robert McGreevey
  • Waldrep, Jury Discrimination: The Supreme Court, Public Opinion, and a Grassroots Fight for Racial Equality in Mississippi, by Raymond Wolters
  • Wallis, Earning Power: Women and Work in Los Angeles, 1880–1930, by Laurie Mercier
  • Whaley, Oregon and the Collapse of Illahee: U.S. Empire and the Transformation of an Indigenous World, 1792–1859, by Colleen Boyd
  • White, Garton, Robertson, and White, Playing the Numbers: Gambling in Harlem between the Wars, by Marcy S. Sacks
  • Wilf, Law’s Imagined Republic: Popular Politics and Criminal Justice in Revolutionary America, by Thomas Hughes Cox
  • Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration, by Joe William Trotter Jr.
  • Williams, Religion and Violence in Early American Methodism: Taking the Kingdom by Force, by A. Gregory Schneider
  • Wortman, The Bonfire: The Siege and Burning of Atlanta, by Paul G. Ashdown
  • Yoo, Contentious Spirits: Religion in Korean American History, 1903–1945, by Shirley Jennifer Lim
  • Zboray and Zboray, Voices without Votes: Women and Politics in Antebellum New England, by Sherry H. Penney
  • Ziesche, Cosmopolitan Patriots: Americans in Paris in the Age of Revolution, by William Stinchcombe

Movie Reviews

Web site Reviews

Web site Reviews are available without a subscription.

  • Papers of the War Department, 1784–1800, by Charles H. Lesser (p. 307) Read online >
  • Nineteenth Century California Sheet Music, by Kenneth H. Marcus (p. 308) Read online >
  • Shadows at Dawn, by Miguel A. Levario (p. 308) Read online >
  • Politics of a Massacre: Discovering Wilmington 1898, by Adriane Lentz-Smith (p. 309) Read online >
  • Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600–2000, by Louise Newman (p. 310) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

View “Recent Scholarship” listing online >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

cover image

On the cover:

The Methodist Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam, president of the World Council of Churches, being sworn in prior to testifying at a hearing of the House Un-American Activities Committee on July 21, 1953. Oxnam had been accused by the evangelical leader Carl McIntire and others of having communist sympathies. Courtesy Getty Images. See David A. Hollinger, “After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Ecumenical Protestantism and the Modern American Encounter with Diversity,” p. 21.

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