Journal of American History


Conspiratorial Anglophobia and the War of 1812

From the Revolution to the September 11, 2001, attacks, and from antimasonry to Zionism, conspiracy theories have been part of American culture. At the two-hundredth anniversary of the War of 1812, Lawrence A. Peskin examines fears in the early republic that Britain was conspiring to suppress American manufacturing, infiltrate and control the Bank of America, set Barbary pirates on American ships, instigate Native Americans to attack frontier families, and use secret agents to separate the states. While the British were guilty of aspects of those charges, Peskin concludes that contemporary theories that all of these activities were part of a broad conspiracy to recolonize the states were overblown and unfounded. He argues that such fears nevertheless had a very real outcome by pushing the new nation into a difficult, and probably unnecessary, war. (pp. 647–69) Read online >

The Strike Imagined: The Atlantic and Interpretive Voyages of Robert Koehler’s Painting The Strike

The Twin City Rapid Transit Company strike of 1917 was one of many labor disputes, including one on the Iron Range led by the militant Industrial Workers of the World, to shake Minnesota in the period during and after World War I.
Courtesy Minnesota Historical Society, Minneapolis.

Labor historians have long explored aspects of working-class culture ranging from religion to ethnicity, and cultural and intellectual historians have begun to trace themes of labor and class in American literature and thought. Christopher Phelps asserts that a more intensive and fruitful rapprochement of intellectual and labor history is revealed by the story of Robert Koehler’s 1886 painting The Strike. The work of a Milwaukee-educated German American inspired by the Pittsburgh strike of 1877, The Strike was completed in Munich based on sketches made in England, unveiled in New York and honored in Paris, and crisscrossed the Atlantic in both its conceptualization and audiences. The reception of the painting reflected, Phelps argues, the nexus of modern liberal beliefs about labor in the epoch of rapidly industrializing capitalism and, after a long lapse into obscurity, the radicalism of the 1960s in the moment of its rediscovery. (pp. 670–98) Read online >

Interwoven Economic Histories: American Indians in a Capitalist America

In this Currier and Ives illustration from 1868, “Across the Continent: ‘Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way,’” American Indians are depicted as lacking the art of capital or industrial improvement and thus remaining in a state of nature. Until recently, historians have maintained this representation of Indians as uninterested in or incapable of engaging in modern economic enterprise.
Courtesy Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ppmsca-03213

Alexandra Harmon, Colleen O’Neill, and Paul C. Rosier explain why historians, particularly those outside the American Indian specialty, should integrate Indian economic affairs into surveys and analyses of U.S. history. They document scholars’ neglect of Indian economic activity, identify reasons for that neglect, and discuss new research that makes a compelling case for Indians’ significance in American economic history. Histories of American capitalism are incomplete and current Indian entrepreneurship makes little sense, the authors argue, unless historians acknowledge U.S. incorporation of Indian resources and Indians’ diverse adaptations as workers and entrepreneurs. (pp. 698–) Read online >

Round Table

Conservatism: A Round Table

In recent years there has been a remarkable expansion of historical scholarship on twentieth-century American conservatism. This new literature comprises a rich and exciting body of work, one that is in direct dialogue with developments in contemporary U.S. politics. Kim Phillips-Fein offers an assessment of the state of the field, suggesting an evolution away from writing about conservatism as a “backlash” against the 1960s and toward seeing it as a political movement gaining strength over the entire postwar period. She outlines how the new scholarship on conservatism might alter how we teach the narrative of the twentieth century, and she suggests some of the interpretive questions that remain about the place of conservatism in American history. Following Phillips-Fein’s article, the conservatism scholars Alan Brinkley, Donald T. Critchlow, Martin Durham, Matthew D. Lassiter, Wilfred M. McClay, and Lisa McGirr offer perspectives on the state of the field.

  • Conservatism: A State of the Field
    Kim Phillips-Fein (pp. 723–43) Read Online >
  • Less Boilerplate, More Symmetry
    Wilfred M. McClay (pp. 744–47) Read Online >
  • Conservatism as a Growing Field of Scholarship
    Alan Brinkley (pp. 748–51) Read Online >
  • Rethinking American Conservatism: Toward a New Narrative
    Donald T. Critchlow (pp. 752–55) Read Online >
  • On American Conservatism and Kim Phillips-Fein’s Survey of the Field
    Martin Durham (pp. 756–59) Read Online >
  • Political History beyond the Red-Blue Divide
    Matthew D. Lassiter (pp. 760–64) Read Online >
  • Now That Historians Know So Much about the Right, How Should We Best Approach the Study of Conservatism?
    Lisa McGirr (pp. 765–70) Read Online >
  • A Response
    Kim Phillips-Fein (pp. 771–73) Read Online >

Exhibition Reviews

This part of the Timeline Wall in the new Watergate exhibit at the Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, uses interactive video screens and text to describe the battle over President Richard M. Nixon’s previously secret tapes. A panel in this section describes how Nixon fired Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox in an attempt to prevent the release of the tapes.
Photo by Bess Reed. Courtesy Bess Reed.
  • “Introduction,” by Benjamin Filene and Brian Horrigan (p. 774–5) Read online >
  • “Tangible Things,” by Cathy Stanton (p. 776–8) Read online >
  • “The Irish Hunger Memorial,” by Marion R. Casey (p. 779–81) Read online >
  • “Re-Defining Democracy: Jane Addams and the Hull-House Settlement,” by Lara Kelland (p. 782–5) Read online >
  • “An American Turning Point: The Civil War in Virginia,” by Rick Beard (p. 786–9) Read online >
  • “Watergate,” by Benjamin Hufbauer (p. 790–96) Read online >

Book Reviews

The book reviews are displayed alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor. To read any of the reviews online, please click here.

  • Adams, Way Up North in Louisville: African American Migration in the Urban South, 1930–1970, by Dwayne A. Mack
  • Bader, Mencken, and Baker, Paranormal America: Ghost Encounters, ufo Sightings, Bigfoot Hunts, and Other Curiosities in Religion and Culture, by Sarah M. Pike
  • Bailey, Race and Redemption in Puritan New England, by Robert M. Bliss
  • Baldoz, The Third Asiatic Invasion: Empire and Migration in Filipino America, 1898–1946, by Barbara M. Posadas
  • Balio, The Foreign Film Renaissance on American Screens, 1946–1973, by Vanessa R. Schwartz
  • Beneke and Grenda, eds., The First Prejudice: Religious Tolerance and Intolerance in Early America, by Bracy V. Hill II
  • Berger, ed., The Hidden 1970s: Histories of Radicalism, by Stephanie Gilmore
  • Berlin, The Making of African America: The Four Great Migrations, by James N. Gregory
  • Bigsby, Arthur Miller, 1915–1962, by Brenda Murphy
  • Biles, The Fate of Cities: Urban America and the Federal Government, 1945–2000, by Howard Gillette Jr.
  • Blair, I’ve Got to Make My Livin’: Black Women’s Sex Work in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago, by Cheryl Hicks
  • Boisseau and Markwyn, eds., Gendering the Fair: Histories of Women and Gender at World’s Fairs, by Melissa R. Klapper
  • Bowman, At the Precipice: Americans North and South during the Secession Crisis, by Christopher J. Olsen
  • Brenner, Brenner, and Winslow, eds., Rebel Rank and File: Labor Militancy and Revolt from Below in the Long 1970s, by Martin Halpern
  • Broderick, Triumvirate: McKim, Mead, and White; Art, Architecture, Scandal, and Class in America’s Gilded Age, by Isabelle Gournay
  • Brody, Visualizing American Empire: Orientalism and Imperialism in the Philippines, by Alyosha Goldstein
  • Brown-Nagin, Courage to Dissent: Atlanta and the Long History of the Civil Rights Movement, by Kathryn L. Nasstrom
  • Browning, Shifting Loyalties: The Union Occupation of Eastern North Carolina, by Robert Tracy McKenzie
  • Buel, Joel Barlow: American Citizen in a Revolutionary World, by Robert J. Alderson Jr.
  • Burke, On Slavery’s Border: Missouri’s Small–Slaveholding Households, 1815–1865, by Stanley Harrold
  • Christianson, The Last Gasp: The Rise and Fall of the American Gas Chamber, by Carol Steiker
  • Clark, Founding the Fathers: Early Church History and Protestant Professors in Nineteenth-Century America, by William C. Ringenberg
  • Clegg, Troubled Ground: A Tale of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning in the New South, by Walter T. Howard
  • Clodfelter, Beneficial Bombing: The Progressive Foundations of American Air Power, 1917–1945, by Gian P. Gentile
  • Cohen, Braceros: Migrant Citizens and Transnational Subjects in the Postwar United States and Mexico, by Anthony Quiroz
  • Connolly, An Elusive Unity: Urban Democracy and Machine Politics in Industrializing America, by Scott G. Knowles
  • Cook, Civil War Senator: William Pitt Fessenden and the Fight to Save the American Republic, by Frederick J. Blue
  • Coontz, A Strange Stirring: The Feminine Mystique and American Women at the Dawn of the 1960s, by Elaine Tyler May
  • Cullather, The Hungry World: America’s Cold War Battle against Poverty in Asia, by Robert J. McMahon
  • Davy, Lady Dicks and Lesbian Brothers: Staging the Unimaginable at the wow Café Theatre, by Jane Gerhard
  • de Schweinitz, If We Could Change the World: Young People and America’s Long Struggle for Racial Equality, by Julia L. Mickenberg
  • Dennis, The Memorial Day Massacre and the Movement for Industrial Democracy, by Mark McColloch
  • Dickinson, Blair, and Ott, eds., Places of Public Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials, by David H. Glassberg
  • Downs, Declarations of Dependence: The Long Reconstruction of Popular Politics in the South, 1861–1908, by Michael Perman
  • Ehrlich, Radio Utopia: Postwar Audio Documentary in the Public Interest, by Jason Loviglio
  • Eisenstadt, Rochdale Village: Robert Moses, 6,000 Families, and New York City’s Great Experiment in Integrated Housing, by W. Roger Biles
  • Fallace, Dewey and the Dilemma of Race: An Intellectual History, 1895–1922, by James A. Good
  • Farmer-Kaiser, Freedwomen and the Freedmen’s Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation, by Suzanne Bordelon
  • Foster, ed., New Men: Manliness in Early America, by Sharon Block
  • Fountain, Slavery, Civil War, and Salvation: African American Slaves and Christianity, 1830–1870, by Jason R. Young
  • Frost, Hedda Hopper’s Hollywood: Celebrity Gossip and American Conservatism, by Jon Lewis
  • Fuller, From Battlefields Rising: How the Civil War Transformed American Literature, by Faith Barrett
  • Furmanksy, Rosalie Edge, Hawk of Mercy: The Activist Who Saved Nature from the Conservationists, by Kimberly A. Jarvis
  • García and Castro, Blowout! Sal Castro and the Chicano Struggle for Educational Justice, by Guadalupe San Miguel Jr.
  • Gitlin and Leibovitz, The Chosen Peoples: America, Israel, and the Ordeals of Divine Election, by Yaakov Ariel
  • Goldberg and Griffey, eds., Black Power at Work: Community Control, Affirmative Action, and the Construction Industry, by Robert Samuel Smith
  • Goodman, Radio’s Civic Ambition: American Broadcasting and Democracy in the 1930s, by Nathan Godfried
  • Graber, The Furnace of Affliction: Prisons and Religion in Antebellum America, by Margaret Abruzzo
  • Green, Black Yanks in the Pacific: Race in the Making of American Military Empire after World War II, by John Darrell Sherwood
  • Greene, The Constitutional Origins of the American Revolution, by Aziz Rana
  • Greeson, Our South: Geographic Fantasy and the Rise of National Literature, by Owen Robinson
  • Gregerson and Juster, eds., Empires of God: Religious Encounters in the Early Modern Atlantic, by Evan Haefeli
  • Gross and Kelley, eds., A History of the Book in America, vol. 2: An Extensive Republic; Print, Culture, and Society in the New Nation, 1790–1840, by Martha Tomhave Blauvelt
  • Hale, A Nation of Outsiders: How the White Middle Class Fell in Love with Rebellion in Postwar America, by Daniel Geary
  • Hall, A Reforming People: Puritanism and the Transformation of Public Life in New England, by Carla Gardina Pestana
  • Harper, White Man’s Heaven: The Lynching and Expulsion of Blacks in the Southern Ozarks, 1894–1909, by Randy Finley
  • Hartley, Evangelicals at a Crossroads: Revivalism and Social Reform in Boston, 1860–1910, by Gary Scott Smith
  • Herman, Hell on the Range: A Story of Honor, Conscience, and the American West, by John H. Monnett
  • Herring, Another Country: Queer Antiurbanism, by Christina Hanhardt
  • Hicks, Talk with You Like a Woman: African American Women, Justice, and Reform in New York, 1890–1935, by Alison M. Parker
  • Hoberman, An Army of Phantoms: American Movies and the Making of the Cold War, by Louis W. Liebovich
  • Hoffer, Cry Liberty: The Great Stono River Slave Rebellion of 1739, by John K. Thornton
  • Holland, Sacred Borders: Continuing Revelation and Canonical Restraint in Early America, by Jewel L. Spangler
  • HoSang, Racial Propositions: Ballot Initiatives and the Making of Postwar California, by Michael K. Brown
  • Jackson, The Indignant Generation: A Narrative History of African American Writers and Critics, 1934–1960, by Keith E. Byerman
  • Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World, by Albert H. Tillson Jr.
  • Jones, In Search of Brightest Africa: Reimagining the Dark Continent in American Culture, 1884–1936, by Lamin Sanneh
  • Junger, Becoming the Second City: Chicago’s Mass News Media, 1833–1898, by John J. Pauly
  • Kallina, Kennedy v. Nixon: The Presidential Election of 1960, by Shaun A. Casey
  • Karlyn, Unruly Girls, Unrepentant Mothers: Redefining Feminism on Screen, by Elana Levine
  • Kirkendall, ed., The Organization of American Historians and the Writing and Teaching of American History, by Peter Charles Hoffer
  • Lambert, Spirituality, Inc.: Religion in the American Workplace, by Erin A. Smith
  • Landers, The Improbable First Century of Cosmopolitan Magazine, by Sammye Johnson
  • Landsman, Crossroads of Empire: The Middle Colonies in British North America, by Judith A. Ridner
  • Ledbetter, Unwarranted Influence: Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Military-Industrial Complex, by Joel Davidson
  • Lengel, Inventing George Washington: America’s Founder, in Myth and Memory, by Seth C. Bruggeman
  • Lentz and Gower, The Opinions of Mankind: Racial Issues, Press, and Propaganda in the Cold War, by Ralph B. Levering
  • Loebl, America’s Medicis: The Rockefellers and Their Astonishing Cultural Legacy, by Kathleen McCarthy
  • Lofton, Oprah: The Gospel of an Icon, by Jennifer Scanlon
  • Lukasik, Discerning Characters: The Culture of Appearance in Early America, by C. Dallett Hemphill
  • Machor, Reading Fiction in Antebellum America: Informed Response and Reception Histories, 1820–1865, by Milette Shamir
  • MacLeitch, Imperial Entanglements: Iroquois Change and Persistence on the Frontiers of Empire, by Thomas S. Abler
  • Mander, Pen and Sword: American War Correspondents, 1898–1975, by Dale E. Zacher
  • Marshall, Watergate’s Legacy and the Press: The Investigative Impulse, by Mark Feldstein
  • Martin, The Other Eighties: A Secret History of America in the Age of Reagan, by Vincent J. Cannato
  • Mason, The Mormon Menace: Violence and Anti-Mormonism in the Postbellum South, by Rodger M. Payne
  • Masur, An Example for All the Land: Emancipation and the Struggle over Equality in Washington, D.C., by Richard Valelly
  • Maurer and Yu, The Big Ditch: How America Took, Built, Ran, and Ultimately Gave Away the Panama Canal, by Julie Greene
  • Mayer, Stagestruck Filmmaker: D. W. Griffith and the American Theatre, by Melvyn Stokes
  • Mayeri, Reasoning from Race: Feminism, Law, and the Civil Rights Revolution, by Mary Welek Atwell
  • McMillian, Smoking Typewriters: The Sixties Underground Press and the Rise of Alternative Media in America, by Devon Powers
  • Mercieca, Founding Fictions, by Peter C. Messer
  • Miller, Schrier, Boling, and Doyle, Irish Immigrants in the Land of Canaan: Letters and Memoirs from Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1675–1815, by Brian C. Mitchell
  • Minardi, Making Slavery History: Abolitionism and the Politics of Memory in Massachusetts, by Dean Grodzins
  • Mirowski, Science-Mart: Privatizing American Science, by Cyrus Mody
  • Mora, Border Dilemmas: Racial and National Uncertainties in New Mexico, 1848–1912, by Pablo Mitchell
  • Morsman, The Big House after Slavery: Virginia Plantation Families and Their Postbellum Domestic Experiment, by Anya Jabour
  • Murray, Not in This Family: Gays and the Meaning of Kinship in Postwar North America, by Fred Fejes
  • Newman and Jacobs, Who Cares? Public Ambivalence and Government Activism from the New Deal to the Second Gilded Age, by Marisa Chappell
  • Ngai, The Lucky Ones: One Family and the Extraordinary Invention of Chinese America, by Robert G. Lee
  • Nickerson and Dochuk, eds., Sunbelt Rising: The Politics of Space, Place, and Region, by David Goldfield
  • Noonan, Reading the Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine: American Literature and Culture, 1870–1893, by Betsy Klimasmith
  • Ogbar, ed., The Harlem Renaissance Revisited: Politics, Arts, and Letters, by Clare Corbould
  • op de Beeck, Suspended Animation: Children’s Picture Books and the Fairy Tale of Modernity, by Erin Hollis
  • Petit, The Men and Women We Want: Gender, Race, and the Progressive Era Literacy Test Debate, by Sherry J. Katz
  • Pfeifer, The Roots of Rough Justice: Origins of American Lynching, by Ken Gonzales-Day
  • Porter, The Problem of the Future World: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Race Concept at Midcentury, by Robert Gooding-Williams
  • Prados, How the Cold War Ended: Debating and Doing History, by Christopher Maynard
  • Putnam and Campbell, American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us, by Mark Silk
  • Rable, God’s Almost Chosen Peoples: A Religious History of the American Civil War, by Charles Reagan Wilson
  • Reay, New York Hustlers: Masculinity and Sex in Modern America, by David Bergman
  • Richardson, A Bomb in Every Issue: How the Short, Unruly Life of Ramparts, Magazine Changed America, by Edward P. Morgan
  • Robinson, The Dance of the Comedians: The People, the President, and the Performance of Political Standup Comedy in America, by Sam B. Girgus
  • Rodgers and Hirsch, eds., America’s Folklorist: B. A. Botkin and American Culture, by Robert Blair St. George
  • Rodgers, Age of Fracture, by Doug Rossinow
  • Ruck, Raceball: How the Major Leagues Colonized the Black and Latin Game, by Warren Goldstein
  • Rutkow, Seeking the Cure: A History of Medicine in America, by Deborah I. Levine
  • Ryan, afscme’s Philadelphia Story: Municipal Workers and Urban Power in the Twentieth Century, by Bruce Cohen
  • Sacco, Unspeakable: Father-Daughter Incest in American History, by Brian Connolly
  • Sakmyster, Red Conspirator: J. Peters and the American Communist Underground, by Randi Storch
  • Sandbrook, Mad as Hell: The Crisis of the 1970s and the Rise of the Populist Right, by Bradford Martin
  • Sandweiss, Passing Strange: A Gilded Age Tale of Love and Deception across the Color Line, by Kenneth R. Janken
  • Savage, Monument Wars: Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape, by Lisa Benton-Short
  • Scaff, Max Weber in America, by John Gunnell
  • Scott, A Visitation of God: Northern Civilians Interpret the Civil War, by Terrie Dopp Aamodt
  • Sexton, The Monroe Doctrine: Empire and Nation in Nineteenth-Century America, by Joseph A. Fry
  • Shreve, Red Power Rising: The National Indian Youth Council and the Origins of Native Activism, by Stephen Amerman
  • Siegel, Since ’45: America and the Making of Contemporary Art, by Christin J. Mamiya
  • Silkenat, Moments of Despair: Suicide, Divorce, and Debt in Civil War Era North Carolina, by Thomas J. Brown
  • Silver, Our Exodus: Leon Uris and the Americanization of Israel’s Founding Story, by Michael Brown
  • Silverman, Red Brethren: The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and the Problem of Race in Early America, by Andrew Lipman
  • Stempel, Showtime: A History of the Broadway Musical Theater, by Stacy Wolf
  • Stowe, No Sympathy for the Devil: Christian Pop Music and the Transformation of American Evangelicalism, by Mark Hulsether
  • Strub, Perversion for Profit: The Politics of Pornography and the Rise of the New Right, by David T. Courtwright
  • Suttles, with Jacobs, Front Page Economics, by Christopher S. Roush
  • Takiff, A Complicated Man: The Life of Bill Clinton as Told by Those Who Know Him, by Steven M. Gillon
  • Tallman, The Notorious Dr. Flippin: Abortion and Consequence in the Early Twentieth Century, by Simone M. Caron
  • Taylor, The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels, and Indian Allies, by Anthony Parent
  • Thomas and Boisseau, eds., Feminist Legal History: Essays on Women and Law, by Judith A. Baer
  • Tsesis, ed., The Promises of Liberty: The History and Contemporary Relevance of the Thirteenth Amendment, by Christopher Waldrep
  • Ulrich, American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953–2006, by Bruce L. Benson
  • Walkowitz, City Folk: English Country Dance and the Politics of the Folk in Modern America, by April F. Masten
  • Wallace, Catholics, Slaveholders, and the Dilemma of American Evangelicalism, 1835–1860, by Beth Barton Schweiger
  • Wenger, History Lessons: The Creation of American Jewish Heritage, by Hadassa Kosak
  • Whaley, Disciplining Women: Alpha Kappa Alpha, Black Counterpublics, and the Cultural Politics of Black Sororities, by LaKisha Simmons
  • Willrich, Pox: An American History, by Howard Markel
  • Wojcik, The Apartment Plot: Urban Living in American Film and Popular Culture, 1945 to 1975, by Hilary Radner
  • Wolters, Race and Education, 1954–2007, by Charles C. Bolton
  • Wulf, Founding Gardeners: The Revolutionary Generation, Nature, and the Shaping of the American Nation, by Kim Kleinman
  • Yarrow, Measuring America: How Economic Growth Came to Define American Greatness in the Late Twentieth Century, by W. Elliot Brownlee

Web site Reviews

  • The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War, by Bonnie M. Miller (p. 948) Read online >
  • American Environmental Photographs, 1891–1936 by Christopher W. Wells (p. 949) Read online >
  • Photographs from the Chicago Daily News: 1902–1933, by Judy Kutulas (p. 950) Read online >
  • The Zora Neale Hurston Plays at the Library of Congress, by Karin Zipf (p. 951) Read online >
  • Digital Tools: Zotero and Omeka, by Amanda Morton (p. 952) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

View “Recent Scholarship” listing online >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

cover image

On the cover:

Crowd violence and incendiary destruction were emphasized in M. B. Leiser’s “Burning of the Union Depot,” an engraving of events in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, during the 1877 nationwide strike. Reprinted from Harper’s Weekly, Aug. 11, 1877. See Christopher Phelps, “The Strike Imagined: The Atlantic and Interpretive Voyages of Robert Koehler’s Painting The Strike,” p. 670.

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